An ad hoc committee will plan a two-day public workshop exploring the evidence for special nutritional requirements in disease states and medical conditions that cannot be met with a normal diet and the workshop will explore how these requirements may apply to the management of chronic or acute conditions or diseases that include inborn errors of metabolism, burns or surgical trauma, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, traumatic brain injury, and other non-communicable diseases or medical conditions. The workshop will explore the currently available evidence used to determined potential nutritional requirements that are not encompassed within normal population variation, and how nutritional interventions affect the overall clinical management of diseases in terms of patient safety, efficacy and access. The workshop discussions will encompass the strengths and limitations of different types of evidence (e.g. clinical, non-clinical) in establishing whether special nutritional requirements exist for a given disease or medical condition and in establishing the safety and efficacy of such therapies. The committee will plan and organize the workshop, select and invite speakers and discussants, and moderate the discussions. A summary of the presentations and discussions at the workshop will be prepared by a designated rapporteur in accordance with institutional guidelines.