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Project Information

Project Information


Review of FCC Order 20-48 Authorizing Operation of a Terrestrial Radio Network Near the GPS Frequency Bands


Project Scope:

As requested in section 1662 of the FY2021 National Defense Authorization Act, an ad hoc committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine will provide “an independent technical review of the order and authorization adopted by the Federal Communications Commission on April 19, 2020 (FCC 20-48),” which authorized Ligado Networks LLC to operate a low-power terrestrial radio network adjacent to the Global Positioning System (GPS) frequency band.


The study will consider:


(1) Which of the two prevailing proposed approaches to evaluating harmful interference concerns -- one based on a signal-to-noise interference protection criterion and the other based on a device-by-device measurement of the GPS position error -- most effectively mitigates risks of harmful interference with GPS services and DOD operations and activities.

(2) The potential for harmful interference from the proposed Ligado network to mobile satellite services including GPS and other commercial or DOD services including the potential to affect Department of Defense (DOD) operations, and activities.

(3) The feasibility, practicality, and effectiveness of the mitigation measures proposed in the FCC order with respect to DOD devices, operations, and activities.


The committee’s final report(s) will include the Academies findings and recommendations with respect to these issues as well as other related issues the study committee determines relevant.


The bulk of the technical analysis is expected to be performed based on public reports and open science and engineering literature and practice and result in an entirely unclassified report. This unclassified report is also expected to provide most, or all of the analytical framework needed for assessing classified systems and capabilities. 


The assessment of classified defense systems will be conducted on a tiered basis reflecting the classification level of pertinent information about the systems. Each will be conducted by a separately appointed small committee, drawing on the members of the main study committee and with overlapping membership where possible, and will produce a classified annex. At least 2 such separate analyses and resulting annexes are expected, and a third may be needed as well.


Status: Current

PIN: DEPS-CSTB-21-02

Project Duration (months): 15 month(s)

RSO: Eisenberg, Jon

Topic(s):

Computers and Information Technology
Conflict and Security Issues
Engineering and Technology


Parent Project(s): N/A


Child Project(s): N/A



Geographic Focus:

Committee Membership

Committee Post Date: 08/31/2021

J. Michael McQuade - (Chair)
J. Michael McQuade is a strategic advisor at Carnegie Mellon University where he recently stepped down as Vice President for Research. From 2006 to 2018 he served as Senior Vice President for Science & Technology at United Technologies Corporation, where he provided strategic oversight and guidance for research, engineering, and development activities that focused on a broad range of high-technology products and services for the global aerospace and building systems industries. Dr. McQuade has also held senior positions with technology development and business oversight at 3M, Imation, and Eastman Kodak. He served as Vice President of 3M’s Medical Division and President of Eastman Kodak’s Health Imaging Business. He has broad experience managing basic technology development and the conversion of early-stage research into business growth. Dr. McQuade has served as a member of the Presidents Council of Advisor on Science and Technology, the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, and the Defense Innovation Board, and is a member on the National Academies’ National Science, Technology, and Security Roundtable and its Protecting Critical Technologies for National Security consensus study. Dr. McQuade received a Ph.D. in physics from Carnegie Mellon University.
Jennifer Lacroix Alvarez
Jennifer Alvarez is currently the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chairperson of the Board for Aurora Insight Inc. Ms. Alvarez co-founded Aurora Insight and started as the Chief Technical Officer (CTO) in 2017 and led the development of the foundational technologies for sensing the radio frequency environment from land, air and space, with a particular focus on emerging 5G technologies and the challenges associated with spectrum, including its general lack of availability and interference. Prior to co-founding Aurora Insight, Ms. Alvarez served in numerous roles at Southwest Research Institute beginning in 1992. She performed extensive work on GPS interference, including developing detection and mitigation techniques and systems for GPS jammers and spoofers. She led multi-disciplinary research efforts to develop innovative solutions in radio frequency signal acquisition and processing for cooperative, non-cooperative, and interfering signals. Her innovations included new radio frequency sensing technologies for cognitive radio applications and advanced methods for passively sensing and extracting information about signals and waveforms. Ms. Alvarez holds a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering from The University of Texas at San Antonio, where her Master’s thesis focused developing a communication technique that exploited certain characteristics of GPS signals.
Kristine M. Larson
Kristine M. Larson is professor emerita at the University of Colorado Boulder and a research associate at Central Washington University. Dr. Larson’s research has focused on using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals for geoscience research. In addition to using GPS to measure global and regional crustal deformation, she has developed new applications for GPS, including measuring seismic displacements, soil moisture, vegetation water content, precise time & frequency synchronization, snow depth, volcanic ash, tsunami waves, tides and lake levels. She has served on several National Academies committees, including the Committee on National Requirements for Precise Geodetic Infrastructure. She received the 2015 Huygens Medal from the European Geosciences Union. In 2020 Dr. Larson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and received the Whitten Medal from the American Geophysical Union. She earned a B.A. in engineering sciences from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in Earth Sciences (geophysics) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego.
John L. Manferdelli
John is currently Confidential Computing Incubation Leader, VMware where he leads security innovation projects in the Office of the CTO. Before that, he was Professor of the Practice and Executive Director of the Cyber Security and Privacy Institute at Northeastern University. Immediately prior to that he was Engineering Director for Production Security Development at Google. Prior to Google, John was a Senior Principal Engineer at Intel Corporation and co-PI (with David Wagner) for the Intel Science and Technology Center for Secure Computing at the University of California at Berkeley. Prior to Intel, John was a distinguished engineer at Microsoft and was an affiliate faculty member in computer science at the University of Washington. Prior to that, John founded a Natural Language Company that was acquired by Microsoft and worked at Bell Labs, Livermore Labs and TRW. John was also a member of the Information Science and Technology advisory group at DARPA and is a member of the Defense Science Board. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Cyber Resilience Forum. John’s professional interests include cryptography and cryptographic mathematics, combinatorial mathematics, operating systems, computer security and IoT. He is a licensed Radio Amateur (AI6IT). Manferdelli has a bachelor’s degree in physics from Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley.
Preston F. Marshall
Dr. Preston F. Marshall is an Engineering Director at Google, LLC, responsible for spectrum access technology, including a focus on the creation of a vibrant ecosystem of equipment, users, and standards in the newly shared 3.5 GHz Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) band. He is chair of the Wireless Innovation Forum Spectrum Sharing Subcommittee, developing the technology base for 3.5 GHz spectrum sharing, and Chair of the Board of Directors of the CBRS (now OnGo) Alliance, developing coexistence and neutral host technology for the 3.5 GHz band. He has a new book on this subject, “Three Tier Shared Spectrum, Shared Infrastructure, and a Path to 5G”, recently released by Cambridge University Press, as well as two prior works on Cognitive Radio. He has been heavily involved in wireless technology and policy, including: Deputy Director of the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at the University of Southern California; and Director of the ISI Center for Computer Science and Technology; a Research Professor at USC’s Electrical Engineering Department; a contributor to the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) spectrum study that led to the creation of the CBRS band, and a Program Manager at the Defense Advanced research Projects Agency (DARPA), directing multiple wireless and sensing technology programs. He holds a PhD in Electrical Engineering from Trinity College, Dublin, and a MS and BS from Lehigh University in Electrical Engineering.
Y. Jade Morton
Dr. Jade Morton is the Helen and Hubert Croft Professor of and Director for Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) in the Ann and HJ Smead Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at the University of Colorado (CU), Boulder. Dr. Morton’s research expertise lie at the intersection of satellite navigation technologies and remote sensing of the Earth’s space environment, atmosphere, and surface. She obtained her PhD in Electrical Engineering (EE) from Penn State in 1991, MS in EE from Case Western Reserve University in 1987, and BS in Physics from Nanjing University in 1983. She is an author or co-author of over 300 technical publications and the lead editor of a two-volume set of books titled Position, Navigation, and Timing Technologies in the 21st Century published by Wiley-IEEE Press. She served as the Technical Editor of Navigation Systems for IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Systems, President of the Institute of Navigation (ION), a Program Chair and General Chair of numerous international conferences, and was a member of National Academies of Science panel on the Role of High-Power, High Frequency-Band Transmitters in Advancing Ionospheric/Thermospheric Committee in 2013. She is a distinguished lecturer of the IEEE Aerospace and Electronics Systems Society and a recipient of the ION Burka, Thurlow, and Kepler award, and the IEEE PLANS Richard Kershner award. Dr. Morton is a fellow of IEEE, ION, and the Royal Institute of Navigation (RIN).
Richard L. Reaser, Jr.
Richard L. (Rick) Reaser, Jr., has been a self-employed, independent consultant since January 2020. He provides independent consulting services to U.S.-CREST on Global Positioning System (GPS) and general space technology and markets. In the Spring of 2021, he provided independent consulting services Cerberus Operations and Advisory Company in the performance of technical and market due diligence to assess the viability of an aviation innovation. He provided independent consulting services to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through the Aerospace Corporation with a systems engineering program assessment of the Artemis program in Spring 2020. From 2006 to 2019, Mr. Reaser led Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems’ Spectrum Management and Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Department. He was an Air Force Officer from 1978 to 2006 when he retired as a Colonel. While in the Air Force, Reaser served in the Air Force’s GPS Joint Program Office (JPO) twelve years across three duty tours as a satellite engineer, satellite contract manager, chief engineer, and deputy system program director. While serving as the Defense Department’s deputy director of spectrum management, he was detailed by the Deputy Secretary of Defense to the White House and the State Department as a technical advisor to the US Ambassador to the World Radiocommunications Conference (WRC). In the late 1990’s he was selected as U.S. spokesperson and leader of the interagency effort to prevent GPS spectrum encroachment. He helped the US and Europe obtain new international spectrum for GPS and Galileo at two World Radio Conferences (2000 and 2003). He negotiated the technical agreement between the Europe Union (EU) and the United States to share spectrum between the two systems in 2004. He led the design efforts for three new GPS civil signals L1C, L2C and L5 as well the new military signal called M-Code. Mr. Reaser was appointed by the Secretary of Commerce in January 2009 to the Commerce Spectrum Management Federal Advisory Committee as a Special Government Employee where he served for a decade. In 2015 he was selected by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to serve on a Congressionally-directed committee that provided scientific, technical and management recommendations regarding Commerce Department’s telecom labs.
Jeffrey H. Reed
Professor. Jeffrey H. Reed is the Willis G. Worcester Professor in the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. He currently serves as Founding Director of Wireless@Virginia Tech, one of the largest and most comprehensive university wireless research groups in the US, which he founded in 2006. In 2010, he founded the Ted and Karyn Hume Center for National Security and Technology and served as its interim director. From 2019-2020 he served as the interim director of the Commonwealth Cyber Initiative, and is the current CTO. Dr. Reed’s area of expertise is in software radios, smart antennas, wireless networks, and communications signal processing. He has received his Ph.D., M.S., and B.S., all in Electrical and Computer Engineering, from the University of California, Davis (respectively 1987, 1980, and 1979). He has participated in various National Academies activities, including the GAO Broadband Study in 2016, the Engineering Review and Report on Telecommunications research in 2015, and the Engineering Review and Report on the Communications Technology Laboratory of the Department of Commerce in 2015, as well as serving on the technical advisory boards for approximately six companies and as an informal advisor on national policy regarding wireless issues.
Nambirajan Seshadri
Nambi Seshadri’s pioneering research and commercial intuitiveness have impacted multiple generations of mobile and wireless communications and have helped make technology more affordable for consumers. While at AT&T Shannon Labs, one of Seshadri’s key research initiatives was his work on transmission and coding techniques using multiple transmit antennas. This helped create a new field of wireless communications called space-time coding that improved the reliability of data transmission. An earlier version of this work that he did at AT&T Bell Labs, called delay diversity, was an important component of the 2G cellular time-division multiple access systems and has also impacted WiFi and LTE systems. His contributions to reliable transmission of compressed speech over mobile radio channels also influenced the development of 2G cellular systems. He also drove the adoption of adaptive modulation and hybrid automatic repeat request techniques (important for high performance in time varying channels) in to the Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) standards. These techniques have become core to robust transmission in 3G and 4G systems around the world. His work on list Viterbi decoding and applications for combined speech and channel decoding as well as data transmission systems have been applied to improve speech quality in 2G and 3G systems. Following his career at AT&T Bell Labs and AT&T Shannon Labs, Seshadri helped build Broadcom into a significant player in the wireless market. Here, he initiated or nurtured projects such as short-range wireless, WiFi modems in phones, cellular modems, GPS, near-field communications, and the multimedia chip set strategy that resulted in pioneering products such as the high-definition video camcorder and advanced megapixel camera phones. Through his leadership, the company was able to reduce prices while improving the performance of wireless chipsets. This system-on-chip integration of applications processing, graphics, haptics, WiFi, Bluetooth, camera, and 2G/3G/4G modems has impacted the industry by making smart phones much more affordable. An IEEE Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Seshadri is a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA and consulting CTO at Quantenna Communications, San Jose, CA, USA, in addition to serving as an advisor for several startups.
Stephen J. Stafford
Stephen J. Stafford is the Chief Scientist of the GPS & GNSS Group at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). He is a member of JHUAPL’s Principal Professional Staff, holding B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland, College Park and the University of California, Berkeley, respectively. He has over 15 years of experience in PNT sensor fusion, and radio-navigation. This includes the development of several GPS receivers for high-accuracy and weak signal applications. He has several publications related to the field of navigation warfare.
Jon Eisenberg - (Staff Officer)

Committee Membership Roster Comments

The chair of the committee, Dr. J. Michael McQuade was posted on 7/12/2021. The entire committee is being posted on 8/31/2021.

Events


Event Type :  
-

Description :   

A kickoff session for the review of FCC Order 20-48, which authorized operation of a terrestrial radio network near the GPS frequency bands. This is the second part of the meeting; the committee will finish its planning and discussions from the previous day.


Registration for Online Attendance :   
N/A

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
N/A


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Ryan Murphy
Contact Email:  rmurphy@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  -

Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Event Type :  
-

Description :   

A kickoff session for the review of FCC Order 20-48, which authorized operation of a terrestrial radio network near the GPS frequency bands. We will hear from the study sponsor, work on planning the study, and do the required project start-up discussions and briefings. This is part 1; the committee will finish its discussion the following day.

No registration required. Livestream here at https://livestream.com/accounts/7036396/events/9848909.

1100 – 1200 ET  Open Session

Dr. J. Michael McQuade-Committee Chair

Sponsor’s remarks and charge to the committee

Mr. Fred Moorefield, Deputy Chief Information Officer for Command, Control, and Communications (C3), Office of the Secretary of Defense, Chief Information Officer


Registration for Online Attendance :   
N/A

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
N/A


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Ryan Murphy
Contact Email:  rmurphy@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  -

Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Some sessions are open and some sessions are closed

Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Publications

  • Publications having no URL can be seen at the Public Access Records Office
Publications

No data present.