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Project Information

Project Information


Committee on Planetary Protection


Project Scope:

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine will appoint the Committee on Planetary Protection (CoPP) to operate as a long-term ad hoc committee. The disciplinary scope of CoPP includes the study of those aspects of planetary environments, the life sciences, spacecraft engineering and technology, and science policy relevant to the control of biological cross-contamination arising from the robotic spacecraft missions and the human exploration and utilization of solar system bodies.
CoPP will have two primary tasks:

            1.         To monitor progress in implementing the planetary protection guidelines associated with priority missions and programs identified in the planetary science decadal survey—Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022--and in successor planetary science decadal surveys, and other relevant reports issued by the National Academies; and

            2.         To serve as a source of information and advice on those measures undertaken by robotic spacecraft and human exploration missions to protect the biological and environmental integrity of extraterrestrial bodies for future scientific studies and the means to preserve the integrity of Earth’s biosphere when spacecraft return potentially hazardous extraterrestrial materials to Earth.

The committee will carry out its charge at its in-person and virtual meetings by gathering evidence from experts, deliberating, and, when necessary, by preparing short assessment reports detailing progress in areas relating to NASA’s planetary protection guidelines or new scientific and technical developments.  Such reports may include findings and discussion of key activities undertaken by NASA as well as the status of its actions that relate to the state of implementation of priority missions and programs.

For other advisory activities that require a more in-depth review than is possible through the normal operation of the CoPP, Space Studies Board, Board on Life Sciences, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, and NASA will negotiate a task for a separate ad hoc committee, taking advantage, as appropriate, of the expertise in the CoPP.

Through its regular meetings, the CoPP will also serve the secondary functions of:

            1.         Providing an independent, authoritative forum for the scientific community, the federal government, international space agencies, relevant private-sector entities and organizations, and the interested public to identify and discuss emerging issues in the scientific, technical, and engineering aspects of planetary protection policies and guidelines;

            2.         Identifying and prioritizing necessary research and development activities required to advance the development of planetary protection guidelines designed to ensure that the exploration and utilization of extraterrestrial environments is conducted responsibly; and,

            3.         Providing a forum for interactions with the International Science Council’s Committee on Space Research and other national and international organizations through the addition of international participants when appropriate and in coordination with the SSB.

Status: Current

PIN: DEPS-SSB-20-02

Project Duration (months): 24 month(s)

RSO: Nagasawa, Daniel

Topic(s):

Biology and Life Sciences
Engineering and Technology
Space and Aeronautics
Policy for Science and Technology



Geographic Focus:

Committee Membership

Committee Post Date: 08/19/2020

Joseph K. Alexander - (Chair)
JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER is a consultant with Alexander Space Policy Consultants in science and technology policy. He was a senior program officer with the Academies’ Space Studies Board (SSB) from 2005 until 2013, and he served as SSB director from 1998 until November 2005. Prior to joining the Academies, he was deputy assistant administrator for science in EPA’s Office of Research and Development where he coordinated a broad spectrum of environmental science and led strategic planning. From 1993 to 1994, he was Associate Director of Space Sciences at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and served concurrently as acting chief of the Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics. From 1987 until 1993, he was assistant associate administrator at NASA’s Office of Space Science and Applications where he coordinated planning and provided oversight of all scientific research programs. He also served from 1992 to 1993 as Acting Director of Life Sciences. Prior positions have included deputy NASA chief scientist, senior policy analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and research scientist at the Goddard Space Flight Center. His research interests were in radio astronomy and space physics. He has a B.A. and M.A. in physics from the College of William and Mary. His book, Science Advice to NASA: Conflict, Consensus, Partnership, Leadership, was published in 2017. He has served on multiple Academies’ Committees including Review of the Report of the NASA Planetary Protection Independent Review Board (chair), the Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes (chair), and the Committee on the Review of NASA's Planetary Science Division's Restructured Research and Analysis Programs (member).


Angel Abbud-Madrid
ANGEL ABBUD-MADRID is the director of the Center for Space Resources at the Colorado School of Mines, where he leads a research program focused on the human and robotic exploration of space and the utilization of its resources. He is also the director of the Space Resources Graduate Program aimed at educating scientists, engineers, economists, entrepreneurs, and policy makers in the field of extraterrestrial resources. Abbud-Madrid has more than 30 years of experience conducting experiments in NASA’s low-gravity facilities, such as drop towers, parabolic-flight aircraft, the Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station and received the NASA Astronauts’ Personal Achievement Award for his contributions to the success of human space flight. He is currently the president of the Space Resources Roundtable, an international organization focused on lunar, asteroidal, and planetary resources studies. In addition, Abbud-Madrid is an observer and technical panel member of The Hague International Space Resources Governance Working Group. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical and aerospace engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He has no prior Academies’ committee experience.


Anthony Colaprete
ANTHONY COLAPRETE is a planetary scientist at NASA Ames Research Center in the Space Sciences Division. His research interests include planetary exploration, in situ resource utilizations, volatiles, and radiative transfer. With over twenty years of experience, he has worked on a variety of space projects ranging from sounding rockets and space shuttle flights, to micro and small satellites. Prior to joining NASA Amex research center, he was a principle investigator at the SETI Institute, a National Research Council associate at NASA Ames, and a space scientist at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and the Colorado Space Grant Consortium. Colaprete is the recipient of the 2016 H. Julian Allen Award. He received his Ph.D. in astrophysical, planetary and atmospheric science from the University of Colorado. He has not previously served on an Academies’ committee.
Michael J. Daly
MICHAEL J. DALY is a professor in the department of pathology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) School of Medicine in Bethesda, MD. He is an expert in the study of bacteria belonging to the family deinococcaceae, which are some of the most radiation-resistant organisms yet discovered. He received his Ph.D. in Molecular Biology at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). He has served on multiple Academies’ committees including the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample-Return Missions from Martian Moons, the Committee for the Planetary Protection Standards for Icy Bodies in the Outer Solar System, the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, the Committee on the Astrophysical Context of Life, and the Committee for the Task Group on the Forward Contamination of Europa.
David P. Fidler
DAVID P. FIDLER is an adjunct senior fellow for cybersecurity and global health at the Council on Foreign Relations and is the James Louis Calamaras Professor of Law (emeritus) at the Indiana University Maurer School of Law. He works on international law and global governance issues across many policy areas, including cyberspace, global health, outer space, national security, environmental protection, terrorism, and weapons of mass destruction. Current activities include research on the COVID-19 pandemic, cybersecurity law, and emerging challenges in global space governance. He is the recipient of a Fulbright New Century Scholar Award. Fidler received his J.D. from Harvard Law School. He has served on numerous Academies’ committees, including the Review of the Report of the NASA Planetary Protection Independent Review Board and the Committee to Review Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes.
Sarah A. Gavit
SARAH A. GAVIT is the deputy division manager for the Communications, Radar and Tracking Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). She has over 35 years of engineering and management experience. Previous assignments at JPL include serving as the assistant Director for Engineering and Science, the project manager for the Dawn mission and the Deep Space 2 Mars Microprobe Project, the project system engineer for the Prometheus and Kepler missions, the fault protection system engineer for the Cassini mission, and as the Mars System Sterilization Study lead. Early in her career at Martin Marietta, Sarah was a mission and system engineer for the Magellan mission to Venus. Gavit operated her own business as a private consultant to NASA for spacecraft system engineering and project management, and frequently served on technical, management and cost panels for space mission evaluations. Gavit received her M.S. in aeronautical and astronautical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She has no prior Academies’ committee experience.


Amanda R. Hendrix
AMANDA R. HENDRIX is a senior scientist with the Planetary Science Institute. Her research interests focus on moons and small bodies in the solar system to understand composition, activity, and evolution. Hendrix is The Director of NASA's SSERVI TREX node, previously a co-investigator on the Cassini UVIS and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LAMP teams, was a co-investigator on the Galileo UVS team and served as the Cassini Deputy Project Scientist. In 2016 she published a book (Penguin/Random House) with co-author Charles Wohlforth, Beyond Earth: Our Path to a New Home in the Planets, a discussion of the technological, medical, and social hurdles to overcome in considering a human space establishment in the outer solar system. Hendrix is co-chair of the Roadmaps to Ocean Worlds group, serves as a steering committee member of the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG), and is a member of the Hubble Space Telescope Europa Advisory committee. She earned her Ph.D. in aerospace engineering with an emphasis in planetary science from the University of Colorado. Hendrix has served on various Academies’ committees including the Committee on the Review of Progress Toward Implementing the Decadal Survey Vision and Voyages for Planetary Sciences.


Andrew Horchler
ANDREW HORCHLER is the principal research scientist at Astrobotic, where he leads the development of robotics hardware and software for space applications. He has fielded more than a dozen mobile robot platforms over the past 20 years and has published over 60 papers, proceedings, and patents. Prior to joining Astrobotic, he was the technical lead for Case Western Reserve’s DARPA’s Urban Challenge self-driving car team where he led the creation and testing of driving behaviors and developed real time trajectory planning and mapping algorithms. Horchler received his Ph.D. in mechanical and aerospace engineering (robotics) from Case Western Reserve. He has no prior Academies’ committee experience.



David M. Karl
DAVID M. KARL, NAS, is a professor of oceanography at the University of Hawaii. His research interests include marine microbial ecology, biogeochemistry, long-term time-series studies of climate and ecosystem variability, and the ocean's role in regulating the global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Dr. Karl has been a member of the Polar Research Board since 2002 and has served on the NRC's Committee on a Science Plan for the North Pacific Research Board and the Planning Committee for the International Polar Year 2007-2008, Phase 2. He received his Ph.D. in oceanography in 1978 from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Karl is nominated for his expertise in microbial life in extreme environments and his knowledge of planning and community discussions on exploring subglacial environments. He currently serves on the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences editorial board, and in the past has served on various Academies’ committees including The NAKFI Steering Committee Discovering the Deep Blue Sea: Research, Innovation, Social Engagement (chair) and the Committee on Principles of Environmental and Scientific Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Lake Environments (member).


Eugene H. Levy
EUGENE H. LEVY is the Andrew Hays Buchanan professor of Astrophysics in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University. His research interests focus on theoretical cosmic physics, with emphasis on elucidating mechanisms and processes that underlie physical phenomena in planetary and astrophysical systems. Levy’s research also includes the generation and influences of magnetic fields in natural bodies, including the Earth, Sun, and planets, the theory of cosmic rays, and the theory of physical processes associated with the formation of the solar system, stars, and other planetary systems. Prior to joining Rice University, he served in various capacities at the University of Arizona, including dean of the College of Science, head of the Planetary Science Department and director of the Lunar & Planetary Laboratory, and professor of Planetary Science. Levy has won multiple awards including the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung Senior Scientist Award by the Federal Republic of Germany, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Distinguished Leadership Award through the University of Arizona, and the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago. Levy has served on various committees at the Academies’ including the Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes, and the Committee for US-USSR Workshop on Planetary Sciences, the ad hoc Panel on Mars Sample Return, and the Planetary and Lunar Exploration Task Group.


Robert E. Lindberg, Jr.
ROBERT E. LINDBERG, Jr., is an independent consultant with over thirty-five years of experience as an accomplished aerospace executive and entrepreneur that spans government, aerospace industry, start-ups, academic, and non-profit sectors. Lindberg’s background and experience includes spacecraft and launch vehicle design; entry, descent and landing; and planetary protection. Prior to his current position, he served as vice president of two small space companies: Moon Express and Vector Launch. From 2003 to 2012 he was the president and executive director of the National Institute of Aerospace. Prior to co-founding NIA, Bob was senior vice president with Orbital Sciences Corporation (now a division of Northrop Grumman Corp). Lindberg was a former member of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee and chaired its Planetary Protection Subcommittee. He is affiliated with the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (fellow) and the American Astronautical Society (fellow and past president). Lindberg received numerous honors including the Egleston Medal from Columbia University and the Engineering Achievement Award from the University of Virginia. He has served on committees and panels for NASA, the Naval Studies Board of the Academies’, the National Security Space Architect, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the International Council on Science’s Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Lindberg received his Eng.Sc.D. in mechanical engineering from Columbia University. He served on the Academies’ Committee on the Navy's Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities (member).


Margarita M. Marinova
MARGARITA M. MARINOVA is an independent consultant with experience in space and planetary exploration, in both science and engineering capacities, with the overarching goal to advance human exploration through science and technology. She has worked on improving rocket capabilities and reusability, gaining deeper understanding of the Earth and its planetary neighbors, and applying these advancements to improve life on Earth. Marinova has worked at Airbus Space Propulsion in engine nozzle research and development, and at NASA Ames Research Center as a planetary scientist and has studied a diverse variety of extreme environments, including the High Arctic, the Sahara Desert in Egypt, and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Most recently she was at SpaceX as a propulsion systems responsible engineer for the vertical takeoff and landing F9R-Dev vehicle, vehicle responsible engineer for internal research and the reusability program, and senior Mars development engineer working on mission architecture and vehicle design for the Starship vehicle and its planetary missions. Marinova received her Ph.D. in planetary science from the California Institute of Technology. She served on the Academies’ Committee to Review the NASA’s Planetary Protection Independent Review Report.
A. Deanne Rogers
A. DEANNE ROGERS is an associate professor with the Department of Geosciences at Stony Brook University and editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research—Planets. Prior to joining Stony Brook, she was a postdoctoral fellow at the California Institute of Technology. Her research interests include using remote sensing techniques, statistical methods, laboratory spectroscopy, and thermal modeling to investigate a wide range of planetary surface processes. She manages the Earth and Planetary Remote Sensing Laboratory under the Stony Brook Center for Planetary Exploration. Rogers is the recipient of numerous awards including the NASA Planetary Science Division Early Career Fellow, the NASA Group Achievement Award for Mars Exploration Rovers, and the NASA Group Achievement Award for the 2001 Odyssey THEMIS. She received her Ph.D. in geological sciences from Arizona State University. Rogers has no prior Academies’ committee experience.
Gerhard H. Schwehm
GERHARD H. SCHWEHM has over thirty years of experience working for the European Space Agency (retired) in various positions. This includes serving as the Rosetta Mission Manager from 2004 to 2013, the head of Solar System Science Operations Division at ESA-ESAC from 2007 to 2011, and the head of Planetary Missions Division at ESA-ESTEC from 2001 to 2007. During his time at ESA, Schwehm served as a member of the Interagency Space Debris Working Group, the ESA representative for the NASA Planetary Protection Sub-group, and a member of the ESA Planetary Protection Working Group. He is an ex-officio of numerous mission and payload reviews and selection panels for ESA, NASA, and DLR. Schwehm received his Ph.D. in applied physics from the Ruhr-Universitat Bochum. He has no prior Academies’ committee experience.
Trista J. Vick Majors
TRISTA VICK-MAJORS is an assistant professor in the Biological Sciences Department at Michigan Technological University and a member of the SALSA (Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access) Science Team. She currently serves on the Science Advisory Board for the United States Ice Drilling Program. Prior to joining Michigan Technological University, she was a postdoctoral research scientist at l'Université du Québec à Montréal and at the University of Montana’s Flathead Lake Biological Station. Her main research interests focus on microbial life and biogeochemical processes in and under ice, microbial growth under oligotrophic and energy-limited conditions in aquatic systems, and clean access to pristine subglacial aquatic environments. She has participated in three research expeditions to study permanently ice-covered lakes in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys, including the only study of the region during the onset of the austral winter, and three that accessed subglacial water under ~1 km of ice on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and Ross Ice Shelf as part of the SALSA and WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research and Drilling) projects. She earned her Ph.D. in ecology and environmental sciences from Montana State University. Vick-Majors served on the Academies Committee for the Review of the NASA Independent Review Board and participated in a workshop of experts convened by the Division on Earth and Life Studies on Understanding and Responding to Global Health Security Risks from Microbial Threats in the Arctic.



Committee Membership Roster Comments

Note 1: Anthony Colaprete added to committee 8/7/2020.

Events


Event Type :  
Meeting

Description :   

This event is a closed session.


Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Megan Chamberlain
Contact Email:  mchamberlain@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  -

Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Event Type :  
Meeting

Description :   

This event is a closed session.


Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Megan Chamberlain
Contact Email:  mchamberlain@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  -

Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Mr. Joseph K. Alexander
Dr. Angel Abbud-Madrid
Dr. Anthony Colaprete
Dr. Michael J. Daly
Mr. David P. Fidler
Ms. Sarah A. Gavit
Dr. Amanda R. Hendrix
Dr. Andrew Horchler
Dr. David M. Karl
Dr. Eugene H. Levy
Dr. Robert E. Lindberg
Jr.
Dr. Margarita M. Marinova
Dr. A. Deanne Rogers
Dr. Gerhard H. Schwehm
Dr. Trista J. Vick Majors

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

Discussion of drafts of the chapters of the report on the presentation of lunar volatiles. Also started discussion of the primary findings of the report.

Action items for work between now and the 2 October closed meeting were set immediately before adjourning.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
September 29, 2020
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Event Type :  
Meeting

Description :   

Meeting of the Committee on Planetary Protection to hear presentations relevant to its upcoming report on the impact of human activities on the polar volatiles and the scientific value of protecting the surface and subsurface regions of the Earth's Moon from organic and biological contamination. 

Closed Session discussions will be on action items to move forward on the report and discussing the findings of this committee.


Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Megan Chamberlain
Contact Email:  mchamberlain@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  -

Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Some sessions are open and some sessions are closed

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

The committee discussed reactions to the speaker presentations at the open sessions.

The committee discussed an outline of the report and relevant sections. Action items were set for the next closed meeting on 29 September 2020.

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

-Mr. Joseph K. Alexander
-Dr. Angel Abbud-Madrid
-Dr. Anthony Colaprete
-Dr. Michael J. Daly
-Mr. David P. Fidler
-Ms. Sarah A. Gavit
-Dr. Amanda R. Hendrix
-Dr. Andrew Horchler
-Dr. David M. Karl
-Dr. Eugene H. Levy
-Dr. Robert E. Lindberg, Jr.
-Dr. Margarita M. Marinova
-Dr. A. Deanne Rogers
-Dr. Gerhard H. Schwehm
-Dr. Trista J. Vick Majors

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
September 23, 2020
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Event Type :  
Meeting

Description :   

Meeting of the Committee on Planetary Protection to hear presentations relevant to its upcoming report on the impact of human activities on the polar volatiles and the scientific value of protecting the surface and subsurface regions of the Earth's Moon from organic and biological contamination. 

Closed Session discussions will be on action items to move forward on the report and planning upcoming meeting speakers.


Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Megan Chamberlain
Contact Email:  mchamberlain@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  -

Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Some sessions are open and some sessions are closed

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Mr. Joseph K. Alexander
Dr. Angel Abbud-Madrid
Dr. Anthony Colaprete
Dr. Michael J. Daly
Mr. David P. Fidler
Ms. Sarah A. Gavit
Dr. Amanda R. Hendrix
Dr. Andrew Horchler
Dr. David M. Karl
Dr. Eugene H. Levy
Dr. Robert E. Lindberg
Jr.
Dr. Margarita M. Marinova
Dr. A. Deanne Rogers
Dr. Gerhard H. Schwehm
Dr. Trista J. Vick Majors

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

Reaction to issues brought up during the open session of the meeting.
Discussion of action items moving forward on the report.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
September 18, 2020
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Event Type :  
Meeting

Description :   

This is the first meeting of a new committee and it will be devoted to some background presentations (in open session) and initial committee discussions (in closed session)


Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Megan Chamberlain
Contact Email:  mchamberlain@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  -

Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Some sessions are open and some sessions are closed

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Mr. Joseph K. Alexander; Alexander Space Policy Consultants
Dr. Angel Abbud-Madrid; Colorado School of Mines
Dr. Anthony Colaprete; NASA Ames Research Center
Dr. Michael J. Daly; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Mr. David P. Fidler; Council on Foreign Relations
Ms. Sarah A. Gavit; Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dr. Amanda R. Hendrix; Planetary Science Institute
Dr. Andrew Horchler; Astrobotic
Dr. David M. Karl; NAS University of Hawaii at Manoa
Dr. Eugene H. Levy; Rice University
Dr. Robert E. Lindberg
Jr.; Independent Consultant
Dr. Margarita M. Marinova; Independent Consultant
Dr. A. Deanne Rogers; Stony Brook University
The State University of Ne
Dr. Gerhard H. Schwehm; European Space Agency
Dr. Trista J. Vick Majors; Michigan Technological University

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

Bias and Conflict of Interest Disclosures to the National Academy of Sciences

Issues brought up during presentations to the CoPP during this meeting.

Planning speakers and action items in preparation for the 18 September 2020 meeting.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
September 08, 2020
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Publications

  • Publications having no URL can be seen at the Public Access Records Office
Publications

No data present.