ATHENA COUSTENIS is director of research with the National Centre for Scientific Research of France and is currently based at Paris Observatory in Meudon. She earned her Ph.D. in astrophysics and space techniques and her Habilitation to Direct Research from the University of Paris. Coustenis works in the field of planetology and her research focuses on the use of ground- and space-based observatories and space missions to study solar system bodies. Her current interests include planetary atmospheres and surfaces, with particular emphasis on the satellites of the giant planets. Coustenis is also interested in the characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. In recent years, she has been leading efforts to define and select future space missions to be undertaken by the European Space Agency (ESA) and its international partners. She is the chair of the European Science Foundation’s European Space Science Committee—the nearest equivalent to the SSB in Europe. In addition, Coustenis is the chair of the ESA Human Spaceflight and Exploration Science Advisory Committee; chair of the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection and Chair of the CERES Advisory Committee of the French National Center for Space Studies . She has also chaired and served on numerous ESA and NASA advisory groups and international associations like AAS/DPS, IUGG/IAMAS and EGU. Coustenis previously served as a member of the National Academies’ Committee on Survey of Surveys: Lessons Learned from the Decadal Survey Process and the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample-Return Missions from Martian Moons.
James H. Crocker
JAMES H. CROCKER (NAE) is vice president and general manager, retired, of Space Systems at Lockheed Martin Corporation. The focus of his career has been the design, construction, and management of very large, complex systems and instruments for astrophysics and space exploration both in the U.S. and internationally. These include space missions both human and robotic such as Apollo 17, Skylab, Orion; missions to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, asteroids, the moon, comets, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. In ground-based astronomy, Crocker was program manager for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and head of the Program Office for the European VLT, an array of optically phased 8-meter telescope in the Atacama Desert in Chile. He is a current board member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy. Crocker is a past board chair of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science and a past board chair of the Universities Space Research Association. Crocker is a fellow of the AIAA and fellow of the AAS, and a full member of the International Academy of Astronautics. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Crocker earned a B.E.E. from the Georgia Institute of Technology, an M.S. in engineering from University of Alabama in Huntsville and a M.S. in engineering management from the Johns Hopkins University.
Brett W. Denevi
BRETT W. DENEVI is a planetary scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the deputy principal investigator of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, and science lead of NASA’s Lunar Exploration Analysis Group. She also served as the deputy instrument scientist for the Mercury Dual Imaging System on board the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury, and as a participating scientist on the Dawn mission at asteroid Vesta. Her research focuses on the origin and evolution of planetary surfaces, particularly the history of volcanism, the effects of impact cratering, and space weathering. Brett is the recipient of the 2015 Maryland Academy of Science Outstanding Young Scientist Award, a NASA Early Career Fellowship, seven NASA group achievement awards, and asteroid 9026 Denevi was named in her honor. She received her Ph.D. in geology and geophysics from the University of Hawaii.
Bethany L. Ehlmann
BETHANY L. EHLMANN is a professor of planetary science at the California Institute of Technology. Ehlmann’s research interests include planetary surface processes, infrared spectroscopy, the evolution of Mars, and water-rock interactions throughout the solar system. Previously, she was a European Union Marie Curie Fellow and a collaborator on the Mars Exploration Rovers during their primary and first extended missions and an affiliate of the Dawn science team for its Ceres phase. Ehlmann is co-investigator and a deputy principal investigator for the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, participating scientist on the Mars Science Laboratory mission, co-investigator for the Mars-2020 rover's Mastcam-Z and SHERLOC instruments, and principal investigator of Lunar Trailblazer. She is a recipient of the Division for Planetary Sciences Urey Prize, the American Geophysical Union’s Macelwane medal, the Committee on Space Research’s Zeldovich medal, National Geographic's Emerging Explorer award, the Mineralogical Society of America Distinguished Lecturer award as well as NASA Group Achievement awards. Ehlmann earned a Ph.D. in geological sciences from Brown University. She has served on the National Academies Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science.
Larry W. Esposito
LARRY W. ESPOSITO is a professor at the University of Colorado at Boulder and at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. He is the principal investigator of the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph experiment on the Cassini space mission to Saturn. Esposito was chair of the Voyager Rings Working Group and, as a member of the Pioneer Saturn Imaging Team, he discovered Saturn’s F ring. His research focuses on the nature and history of planetary rings. Esposito has been a participant in numerous U.S., Russian, and European space missions and used the Hubble Space Telescope for its first observations of Venus. Esposito was awarded the Harold C. Urey Prize from the American Astronomical Society, the Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement from NASA, and the Richtmyer Lecture Award from the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Physical Society. He received his Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Esposito has extensive experience with National Academies’ activities, including chairing the Task Group on the Forward Contamination of Europa and the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration.
ORLANDO FIGUEROA is the president of Orlando Leadership Enterprise, LLC, which focuses on providing expert advice in: space mission systems and technology, organization and enterprise/program management, strategic planning, and team and leadership development. Prior to starting his current role, Figueroa retired from NASA as a senior executive with 33 years of experience in the management, planning and development of scientific space programs, missions, and related technologies. Figueroa is versed in interacting with national and international government and non-government organizations. He is the recipient of numerous awards including the 2016 National Space Society Pioneer Award, the 2010 NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the Senior Executive Service Presidential Rank awards, the 2008 Smithsonian Latino Center Legacy award for contributions to American Culture in Science, and the 2005 Service to America Medal Federal Employee of the Year. Figueroa received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Puerto Rico.
John M. Grunsfeld
JOHN M. GRUNSFELD is the president and chief executive officer of the Endless Frontier Associates, LLC. Grunsfeld holds over 30 years of experience in program management and research. Prior to starting his current role, he was the former associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA, where he managed the portfolio of the agency’s space and Earth science programs and joint agency programs. In addition, he served in numerous positions including NASA chief scientist, deputy director of the Space Telescope Science Institute, a professor at the Johns Hopkins University, NASA astronaut, and a senior research fellow at the California Institute of Technology. Grunsfeld is a veteran of five Space Shuttle missions including: STS 67, STS-81, STS-103, STS-109, and STS-125. He is the recipient of multiple awards including the NASA Space Flight Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service Medals, the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, and a NASA Constellation Award. Grunsfeld earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago.
KRISHAN KHURANA is a senior research geophysicist at the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics and the Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has worked on many theoretical and empirical investigations relating to the magnetospheres of Venus, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn and is currently a co-investigator on the magnetometer experiments onboard Cluster, THEMIS, JUICE and Europa Clipper missions. Khurana’s recent research has covered studies of subsurface oceans in Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, ULF waves in outer magnetospheres, the structure and composition of the jovian plasma sheet, and the maintenance of corotation in the jovian magnetosphere. He was elected as a fellow to the American Geophysical Union in 2011. Khurana received his Ph.D. in the field of magnetohydrodynamic waves in rotating fluids from Durham University. He previously served on the National Academies’ Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, the Committee on Solar and Space Physics, and the Committee on Heliophysics Performance Assessment.
William B. McKinnon
WILLIAM B. MCKINNON is professor of Earth and planetary sciences at Washington University in Saint Louis. He also serves as a fellow of the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences. McKinnon’s research interests include the structure, origin, evolution, geology, and bombardment history of outer planet satellites and dwarf planets; and impact mechanics on rocky and icy bodies. He is a distinguished visiting scientist at the California Institute of Technology’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and an editor of Earth and Planetary Science Letters. McKinnon has received three group achievement awards from NASA, has asteroid 9526 Billmckinnon named after him, and in 2014 he received the G.K. Gilbert Award from the Planetary Geology Division of the Geological Society of America. He earned his Ph.D. in planetary science and geophysics from the California Institute of Technology. McKinnon has served as a member of the National Academies Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, and the Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion: A Vision for Beyond 2015.
FRANCIS NIMMO (NAS) is a professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His research interests cover Mars, Venus, Europa, Ganymede, Mercury, the Moon, and Pluto (as well as other icy satellites). Nimmo’s research accomplishments include showing that a giant impact could have generated the martian hemispheric dichotomy; identifying shear-heating as an important process on Enceladus, Europa, and Triton; proposing true polar wander as an important process on Enceladus and Pluto; and explaining the link between plate tectonics and dynamo activity on Mars and Venus. He is the recipient of the 2007 Macelwane medal and Urey prize, the 2018 Farinella Prize and the 2019 Jeffreys lectureship. He received his Ph.D. in volcanism and tectonics on Venus from Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. Nimmo previously served on the National Academies Committee for the Review of the Next Decadal Mars Architecture, the Satellites Panel for the Visions and Voyages Decadal Survey, and the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2020.
CAROL RAYMOND is a principal scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and serves as the program scientist for both the Mission Formulation and the Small Bodies and Planetary Defense Offices within JPL’s Planetary Science Directorate. Her current research focuses on the geophysical evolution of small solar system bodies and icy moons, including Vesta, Ceres, Psyche, and Europa, and what they reveal about the early evolution of the solar system. In addition, planetary magnetic fields have been a long-term research interest. She led the NASA Dawn Mission as deputy principal investigator and assumed the principal investigator role in the extended mission phase. Raymond has held various positions at JPL since 1990, and was a visiting associate in the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences at the California Institute of Technology, and an adjunct associate research scientist at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. She is the recipient of three NASA Exceptional Achievement Medals, the Antarctic Service Medal, the Shoemaker Award of the American Geophysical Union, and is a Fellow of the Geological Society of America. She received her Ph.D. in geological sciences from Columbia University.
Barbara Sherwood Lollar
BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, Companion of the Order of Canada, FRS, FRSC, FRCGS, is a university professor in Earth sciences at the University of Toronto. She is a Canada Research Chair in Isotopes of the Earth and Environment, and Dr. Norman Keevil Chair. She is past-president of the Geochemical Society and co-director of the CIFAR program Earth 4D – Subsurface Science and Exploration. In 2015 she was named a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and in 2019, a Fellow of the Geochemical Society and European Association of Geochemistry. Sherwood Lollar has published on stable isotope geochemistry and hydrogeology, the fate of carbon-bearing fluids and gases such as CO2, CH4 and H2 in ancient fracture waters in the Earth’s crust, deep subsurface microbiology, and the remediation of surface drinking water supplies. She has been a recipient of many academic awards including the 2012 Eni Award for Protection of the Environment, 2012 Geological Society of America Geomicrobiology and Geobiology Prize, 2014 International Helmholtz Fellowship, the 2016 NSERC John Polanyi Award, 2016 Bancroft Award for the Royal Society of Canada, 2018 Logan Medal of the Geological Association of Canada, the 2019 Herzberg Gold Medal for Canada, the 2019 C.C. Patterson Award in environmental geochemistry, and the Canada Council for the Arts 2020 Killam Prize in Natural Sciences. She received her Ph.D. in Earth sciences from the University of Waterloo. Sherwood Lollar has served on a member of many National Academies’ activities, including the Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences, the Committee on the Origin and Evolution of Life, and Space Studies Board. In addition, she chaired the committee that authored the National Academies’ Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe.
AMY SIMON is the senior scientist for Planetary Atmospheres Research in the Solar System Exploration Division at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Her scientific research involves the study of the composition, dynamics, and cloud structure in jovian planet atmospheres, primarily from spacecraft observations. She is also involved in multiple robotic flight missions, as well as future mission concept development. Simon was a co-investigator on the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer and is the deputy instrument scientist for the OSIRIS-REx Visible and near-IR Spectrometer), as well as the Landsat 9 TIRS2 instrument, and the Lucy L'Ralph instrument deputy principal investigator. She is principal investigator of the Hubble Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy program. She earned her Ph.D. in astronomy from the New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. Simon was a member of the last planetary decadal survey steering committee and vice chair of the decadal’s giant planets panel.
David H. Smith - (Staff Officer)