Fred H. Gage
Fred H. Gage, Ph.D., (NAS, NAM) is President and Professor at the Laboratory of Genetics and the Vi and John Adler Chair for Research on Age-related Neurodegenerative Disease at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. He earned a B.S. from the University of Florida, and both an M.S. and Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University.
Dr. Gage concentrates on the unexpected plasticity and adaptability to the environment that mammals have throughout life. His lab showed that human beings are capable of growing new nerve cells throughout life, in a process called neurogenesis. Gage’s team explores how these cells can be prompted to become mature, functioning nerve cells in the adult brain and spinal cord. Dr. Gage uses these reprogrammed cells to make human brain organoids to model the more complex three dimensional nature of the brain. To achieve vascularization, and better survival of the organoids, he has transplanted the cells to the brains of immunocompromised mice. He has also showed that environmental enrichment and physical exercise can enhance the growth of new brain cells. His team continues to study the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurogenesis to find possible avenues to repair damaged or aging brains.
Gage’s lab also models diseases in the laboratory using human stem cells. By reprogramming human skin cells and other cells from patients with neurologic and psychiatric diseases into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iN), his work seeks to decipher the progression and mechanisms that lead to brain cell dysfunction. Dr. Gage uses these reprogrammed cells to make human brain organoids to model the more complex three dimensional structure of the brain. To achieve vascularization, and better survival of the organoids, he has transplanted the cells to the brains of immunocompromised mice. Gage has also revealed that mobile sequences of DNA called “jumping genes” are active in neural stem cells contributing to genomic mosaicism. Specifically, he is interested in how this mosaicism (different sets of genes within a single organism) may lead to differences in brain function between individuals.
Henry T. Greely
Henry T. “Hank” Greely, J.D., is Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and Professor, by courtesy, of Genetics at Stanford University.
Professor Greely specializes in ethical, legal, and social issues arising from advances in the biosciences, particularly from genetics, neuroscience, and human stem cell research. He directs the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences, chairs the California Advisory Committee on Human Stem Cell Research, and serves on the Neuroscience Forum of the National Academy of Medicine. From 2007 to 2010 he was a co-director of the Law and Neuroscience Project. In 2006, he was elected a fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science.
Professor Greely graduated from Stanford in 1974 and from Yale Law School in 1977. He served as a law clerk for Judge John Minor Wisdom on the United States Court of Appeals and for Justice Potter Stewart of the United States Supreme Court. After working during the Carter Administration in the Departments of Defense and Energy, he entered private practice in Los Angeles in 1981 as a litigator with the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor, Inc. He began teaching at Stanford in 1985.
Patricia A. King
Patricia A. King, J.D., (NAM) is Professor Emerita of Law at Georgetown University Law Center. Professor King’s expertise is in the study of law, medicine, ethics and public policy. She is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. She is the co-author of Cases and Materials on Law, Science and Medicine. She teaches Family Law courses and offers a seminar in Bioethics and the Law. She is a member of the American Law Institute and the Institute of Medicine and a Fellow of the Hastings Center. Her work in the field of bioethics has included service on the HEW-Advisory Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the Ethics, Legal and Social Issues Working Group of the Human Genome Project. She is a fellow of the Harvard Corporation and a member of the Board of Trustees of Wheaton College. Her professional experience before joining the Law Center faculty in 1973 was primarily in the civil rights field; she was the Deputy Director of the Office of Civil Rights and Special Assistant to the Chairman of the EEOC. She also served as a Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Civil Division of the Department of Justice.
She earned her B.A. from Wheaton College and her J.D. from Harvard Law School.
William T. Newsome
William T. “Bill” Newsome, Ph.D., (NAS) is the Harman Family Provostial Professor of Neurobiology at the Stanford University School of Medicine, and the Vincent V.C. Woo Director of the Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute. He received a B.S. degree in physics from Stetson University and a Ph.D. in biology from the California Institute of Technology.
Dr. Newsome is a leading investigator in systems and cognitive neuroscience. He has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception and simple forms of decision making. Among his honors are the Rank Prize in Optoelectronics, the Spencer Award, the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association, the Dan David Prize of Tel Aviv University, the Karl Spencer Lashley Award of the American Philosophical Society, and the Champalimaud Vision Award. His distinguished lectureships include the 13th Annual Marr Lecture at the University of Cambridge the 9th Annual Brenda Milner Lecture at McGill University, and most recently, the Distinguished Visiting Scholar lectures at the Kavli Institute of Brain and Mind, UCSD. He was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 2000, and to the American Philosophical Society in 2011. Newsome co-chaired the NIH BRAIN working group, charged with forming a national plan for the coming decade of neuroscience research in the United States.
Sally Temple, Ph.D., is the Scientific Director of the Neural Stem Cell Institute and oversees scientific programs with the goal of understanding the role of neural stem cells in Central Nervous System (CNS) development, maintenance, and repair. Dr. Temple is past member of the board of directors and president of the International Society for Stem Cell Research. A native of York, England, Dr. Temple leads a team of 30 researchers focused on using neural stem cells to develop therapies for eye, brain, and spinal cord disorders. In 2008, she was awarded the MacArthur Fellowship Award for her contribution and future potential in the neural stem cell field.
Dr. Temple received her undergraduate degree from Cambridge University, specializing in developmental biology and neuroscience. She performed her Ph.D. work in optic nerve development at University College London, UK. She received a Royal Society fellowship to support her postdoctoral work at Columbia University, NY, where she focused on spinal cord development.
In 1989, Dr. Temple discovered that the embryonic mammalian brain contained a rare stem cell that could be activated to proliferate in vitro and produce both neurons and glia. Since then, her lab has continued to make pioneering contributions to the field of stem cell research, by characterizing neural stem cells and the intrinsic and environmental factors that regulate their behavior. Her lab’s research on the characterization of neural stem and progenitors brings us closer to developing effective clinical treatments for central nervous system damage in which tissue is lost, for example, due to neurodegenerative diseases or trauma.
Using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), Dr. Temple’s research group is building models to study neurodegenerative diseases, with the goal of identifying therapies. Dr. Temple helps lead the iPSC effort of the Tau Consortium, an international, collaborative group focused on understanding and developing therapies for dementias. This work includes generating human iPSC-derived 3D organoids and assembloids to model neuropathology across different affected brain regions. Her group also models retinal degeneration using iPSC technology and collaborates with Dr. Jeff Stern and a team developing a cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration using an adult stem cell they discovered in the human retina.
S. Lawrence Zipursky
S. Lawrence “Larry” Zipursky, Ph.D., (NAS) is the Jerome J. Belzer Chair of Medical Research and Distinguished Professor of Biological Chemistry at University of California, Los Angeles and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Dr. Zipursky studies brain development, focusing on how neural circuits are formed during development. His laboratory has provided insights into various aspects of circuit assembly, including the molecular basis of neuronal identity through their work on the Dscam1 locus in Drosophila. Zipursky was elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1998 and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2009. He received the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for Biology and Biochemistry from Columbia University in 2015.
Dr. Zipursky received his PhD in Molecular Biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, where he completed his thesis with Dr. Jerard Hurwitz, studying DNA replication in E. coli. In 1981, he moved to the California Institute of Technology to study neural development in Drosophila with Dr. Seymour Benzer as a Helen Hay Whitney Postdoctoral Fellow. He joined the department of biological chemistry at UCLA as a faculty member in 1985 and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as an investigator in 1991. He has served on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke, and various scientific advisory panels including the McKnight, the Helen Hay Whitney, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundations.
Anne-Marie C. Mazza - (Staff Officer)