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Project Information

Project Information


Responding to Section 5(d) of Presidential Policy Directive 28: The Feasibility of Software to Provide Alternatives to Bulk Signals Intelligence Collection


Project Scope:

A committee appointed by the National Research Council will assess "the feasibility of creating software that would allow the U.S. intelligence community more easily to conduct targeted information acquisition rather than bulk collection," as called for in section 5(d) of Presidential Policy Directive 28.  To the extent possible, it will consider the efficacy, practicality, and privacy implications of alternative software architectures and uses of information technology, and explore tradeoffs among these aspects in the context of representative "use cases."  The study will consider a broad array of communications modalities, e.g., phone, email, instant message, and so on. It will not address the legality or value of signals intelligence collection.  The study will identify and assess options and alternatives but will not issue recommendations.

Specifically, the committee will address the following:
(1)    What are a small set of representative use cases within which one can explore alternative software architectures and uses of  information technology, and consider trade-offs?
(2)    What is the current state of the software technology to support targeted information acquisition?  What are feasible and likely trajectories for future relevant software development; near, mid, and far term?  What are possible technology alternatives to bulk collection in the context of the use cases?
(3)    What are relevant criteria or metrics for comparing bulk collection to targeted collection (e.g. effectiveness, response time, cost, efficacy, practicality, privacy impacts)?
(4)    What tradeoffs arise with the technology alternatives analyzed in the context of the uses cases and criteria/metrics?
(5)    How might requirements for information collection be altered in light of this analysis?
(6)    What uncertainties are associated with the assumptions and analyses, and how might they affect the basis for decisions?

Status: Current

PIN: DEPS-CSTB-14-02

Project Duration (months): 11 month(s)

RSO: Shaw, Alan H.

Topic(s):

Computers and Information Technology
Conflict and Security Issues
Math, Chemistry, and Physics


Committee Membership

Committee Post Date: 06/11/2014



Dr. Robert F. Sproull - (Chair)
Oracle [Retired]

Robert Sproull is an adjunct professor of computer science at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Sproull retired in 2011, as Vice President and Director of Oracle Labs, an applied research group that originated at Sun Microsystems (acquired by Oracle in 2010). Before joining Sun in 1990, he was a principal with Sutherland, Sproull, and Associates; an associate professor at Carnegie Mellon University; and a member of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. He has served as chair of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board since 2009. He is also on the Computing Community Consortium (CCC) Council. In June, Dr. Sproull completed a six-year term on the National Academy of Engineering Council. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Sproull received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford University and an A.B. in Physics from Harvard College.
Dr. Frederick R. Chang
Southern Methodist University

Frederick R. Chang is the Director of the Darwin Deason Institute for Cyber Security, the Bobby B. Lyle Endowed Centennial Distinguished Chair in Cyber Security and Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in SMU’s Lyle School of Engineering. He is also a Senior Fellow in the John Goodwin Tower Center for Political Studies in SMU’s Dedman College. He has been Professor and AT&T Distinguished Chair in Infrastructure Assurance and Security at the University of Texas at San Antonio and he was at the University of Texas at Austin as an Associate Dean in the College of Natural Sciences and Director of the Center for Information Assurance and Security. He is the former Director of Research at the National Security Agency. In the private sector he was most recently the President and Chief Operating Officer of 21CT, Inc., an advanced intelligence analytics solutions company. Earlier, he was with SBC Communications where he held a variety of executive positions including, President - Technology Strategy, SBC Communications; President & CEO, SBC Technology Resources, Inc.; and Vice President, Network Engineering and Planning, SBC Advanced Solutions, Inc. He began his professional career at Bell Laboratories. Dr. Chang has been awarded the National Security Agency Director’s Distinguished Service Medal. He has served as a member of the Commission on Cyber Security for the 44th Presidency, and as a member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Academies. He is also a member of the Texas Cybersecurity, Education, and Economic Development Council. He received his B.A. degree from the University of California, San Diego and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Oregon. He has also completed the Program for Senior Executives at the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the lead inventor on two U.S. patents (U.S. patent numbers 7272645 and 7633951). He has served as an expert witness for congressional hearings cybersecurity research and development and the security of healthcare.gov.
Dr. William H. DuMouchel
Oracle Health Sciences

William DuMouchel is Chief Statistical Scientist, Oracle Health Sciences at Oracle Data Sciences. Bill's current research focuses on statistical computing and Bayesian hierarchical models, including applications to meta-analysis and data mining. He is the inventor of the empirical Bayesian data mining algorithm known as Gamma-Poisson Shrinker (GPS) and its successor MGPS, which have been applied to the detection of safety signals in databases of spontaneous adverse drug event reports. These methods are now used within the FDA and industry. From 1996 through 2004 he was a senior member of the data mining research group at AT&T Labs. Prior to 1996, he was Chief Statistical Scientist at BBN Software Products, where he was lead statistical designer of software advisory systems for experimental design and data analysis called RS/Discover and RS/Explore. He has been on the faculties of the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Michigan, MIT, and most recently was Professor of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics at Columbia University from 1994-1996. He has authored approximately fifty papers in peer-reviewed journals and has also been an associate editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association, Statistics in Medicine, Statistics and Computing, and the Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics.
Dr. Michael Kearns
University of Pennsylvania

Michael Kearns is a professor in the Computer and Information Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the National Center chair. His research interests include topics in machine learning, algorithmic game theory, social networks, and computational finance. He is the faculty founder and co-director of Penn's Warren Center for Network and Data Sciences, and the faculty founder of Penn's Network and Social Systems Engineering program. He has secondary appointments in the statistics and operations and information management departments of the Wharton School. Until July 2006 he was co-director of Penn's interdisciplinary Institute for Research in Cognitive Science. He has consulted widely for many companies (finance, Internet technologies, etc.) and occasionally serves as an expert witness/consultant on technology-related legal and regulatory cases. During the 1990s he worked in basic AI and machine learning research at Bell Labs and AT&T Labs, where he was head of the AI department. He has served on the editorial boards of well-known journals of computer science, machine learning and game theory. Michael received his PhD in computer science from Harvard University.
Dr. Butler W. Lampson
Microsoft Corporation

Butler Lampson is a Technical Fellow at Microsoft Corporation and an Adjunct Professor at MIT. He has worked on computer architecture, local area networks, raster printers, page description languages, operating systems, remote procedure call, programming languages and their semantics, programming in the large, fault-tolerant computing, transaction processing, computer security, WYSIWYG editors, and tablet computers. He was one of the designers of the SDS 940 time-sharing system, the Alto personal distributed computing system, the Xerox 9700 laser printer, two-phase commit protocols, the Autonet LAN, the SPKI system for network security, the Microsoft Tablet PC software, the Microsoft Palladium high-assurance stack, and several programming languages. He received the ACM Software Systems Award in 1984 for his work on the Alto, the IEEE Computer Pioneer award in 1996 and von Neumann Medal in 2001, the Turing Award in 1992, and the NAE’s Draper Prize in 2004. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.


Dr. Susan Landau
Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Susan Landau is Professor of Cybersecurity Policy in the Department of Social Science and Policy Studies at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Landau has been a senior staff Privacy Analyst at Google, a Distinguished Engineer at Sun Microsystems, a faculty member at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and at Wesleyan University. She has held visiting positions at Harvard, Cornell, and Yale, and the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute. Landau is the author of Surveillance or Security? The Risks Posed by New Wiretapping Technologies (MIT Press, 2011), and co-author, with Whitfield Diffie, of Privacy on the Line: The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption (MIT Press, 1998, rev. ed. 2007). She has written numerous computer science and public policy papers and op-eds on cybersecurity and encryption policy and testified in Congress on the security risks of wiretapping and on cybersecurity activities at NIST's Information Technology Laboratory. Landau currently serves on the Computer Science Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. A 2012 Guggenheim fellow, Landau was a 2010-2011 fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, the recipient of the 2008 Women of Vision Social Impact Award, and also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Association for Computing Machinery. She received her BA from Princeton, her MS from Cornell, and her PhD from MIT.
The Honorable Michael E. Leiter
Palantir Technologies

Michael E. Leiter is a Senior Counselor at Palantir Technologies. Prior to that, he was the Director of the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC). Leiter was sworn in as the Director of NCTC on June 12, 2008, upon his confirmation by the U.S. Senate and after serving as the Acting Director since November 2007. Before joining NCTC, Mr. Leiter served as the Deputy Chief of Staff for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). In this role Mr. Leiter assisted in the establishment of the ODNI and coordinated all internal and external operations for the ODNI, to include relationships with the White House, the Departments of Defense, State, Justice, and Homeland Security, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Congress. He was also involved in the development of national intelligence centers, including NCTC and the National Counterproliferation Center, and their integration into the larger Intelligence Community. In addition he served as an intelligence and policy advisor to the DNI and PDDNI. Prior to his service with the ODNI, Mr. Leiter served as the Deputy General Counsel and Assistant Director of the President’s Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (the “Robb-Silberman Commission”). While with the Robb-Silberman Commission, Mr. Leiter focused on reforms of the U.S. Intelligence Community, in particular the development of what is now the National Security Branch of the FBI. From 2002 until 2005 he served with the Department of Justice as an Assistant United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. At the Justice Department, Mr. Leiter prosecuted a variety of federal crimes, including narcotics offenses, organized crime and racketeering, capital murder, and money laundering. Immediately prior to his Justice Department service, Mr. Leiter served as a law clerk to Associate Justice Stephen G. Breyer of the Supreme Court of the United States and to Chief Judge Michael Boudin of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. From 1991 until 1997 he served as a Naval Flight Officer flying EA-6B Prowlers in the U.S. Navy, participating in U.S., NATO, and UN operations in the former Yugoslavia and Iraq. Mr. Leiter received his J.D. from Harvard Law School where he graduated magna cum laude and was President of the Harvard Law Review and his B.A. from Columbia University.
Ms. Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker
University of the Pacific

Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker is Dean Emerita at the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law. A noted expert on national security law and terrorism, Parker served 11 years in key federal government positions, most notably as general counsel for the National Security Agency; principal deputy legal adviser, Department of State; and general counsel for the CIA. In private practice, she has advised clients on public policy and international trade issues, particularly in the areas of encryption and advanced technology. She began her career as a Reginald Heber Smith Fellow at Emory University School of Law and later served as the director, New Haven Legal Assistance Association, Inc. Early in her career she was active in litigating civil rights and civil liberties matters, with two successful arguments before the U.S. Supreme Court while a cooperating attorney for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. Immediately before her arrival at McGeorge, she served as general counsel for the 26-campus University of Wisconsin System. A member of the Security Advisory Group, DNI; the Board of Directors, the MITRE Corporation; the American Bar Foundation and the Council on Foreign Relations, Parker is a frequent speaker and lecturer. Her academic background includes teaching at Pacific McGeorge, Case Western Reserve Law School, and Cleveland-Marshall State School of Law. From 2006 to 2013 she held a presidential appointment to the Public Interest Declassification Board. Parker received her B.A. and J.D. from the University of Michigan.
Dr. Peter J. Weinberger
Google, Inc.

Peter J. Weinberger has been a software engineer at Google, Inc. since 2003. After teaching mathematics at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor he moved to Bell Laboratories. At Bell Labs he worked on Unix, and did research on topics including operating systems, compilers, network file systems, and security. He then moved into research management ending up as Information Sciences Research Vice President, responsible for computer science research, math and statistics, and speech. His organization included productive new initiatives, one using all call detail to detect fraud and another doing applied software engineering research to support building software for the main electronic switching systems for central offices. After Lucent and AT&T split, he moved to Renaissance Technologies, a technical trading hedge fund, as Head of Technology, responsible for computing and security. He is a former member of the CSTB, current co-chair of an NRC committee on cybersecurity research, and veteran of several other NRC studies. He serves in a variety of other advisory roles related to science, technology, and national security. He has a Ph.D. in Mathematics (Number Theory) from the University of California at Berkeley.

Events



Location:

National Academy of Sciences Building
2100 C St. NW
Washington D.C.
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Eric Whitaker
Contact Email:  ewhitaker@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-1481

Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Robert Sproull
William DuMouchel
Butler Lampson
Susan Landau
Michael Leiter
Peter Weinberger

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

Committee work sessions: writing and discussion

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
February 02, 2015


Location:

National Academy of Sciences Building
2100 C St. NW
Washington D.C.
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Eric Whitaker
Contact Email:  ewhitaker@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-1481

Agenda

Monday, September 8, 2014

1:00pm - 2:00pm Alex Joel ODNI privacy and civil liberties
2:00pm - 3:00pm Mark Segall NSA R&D (R6) via call-in

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

11:00am - 12:00pm Jay Smart

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

9:00am - 10:00am Peter Highnam, IARPA
1:30pm - 3:00pm PCLOB Representative


NOTE: The data gathering session of this meeting to be held on September 9, 2014, from 9:00 am – 10:45 am, EDT, will not be open to the public under Subsection 15(b)(3) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. The Academy has determined that to open this session to the public would disclose information described in 5 U.S.C. 552(b).
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Robert Sproull
Frederick Chang
William DuMouchel
Butler Lampson
Susan Landau
Michael Leiter
Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker
Peter Weinberger

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

-speaker presentations

-study draft and writing assignments

-additional briefings needed

-future meetings/activities

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
September 22, 2014


Location:

National Academy of Sciences Building
2100 C St. NW
Washington D.C.
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Eric Whitaker
Contact Email:  ewhitaker@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-1481

Agenda

Agenda subject to change - contact Eric Whitaker if you plan to attend.

Wednesday, Aug. 27

3 - 4 pm David Grannis, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

Thursday, Aug. 28

1 - 2 pm Kate Martin, Center for National Security Studies

Note: The data gathering session of this meeting to be held on August 28, 2014, from 9:00 am – 12:00 noon, EDT, will not be open to the public under Subsection 15(b)(3) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. The Academy has determined that to open this session to the public would disclose information described in 5 U.S.C. 552(b).
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Robert Sproull
William DuMouchel
Butler Lampson
Susan Landau
Michael Leiter
Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker
Peter Weinberger


The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

-study draft

-speaker presentations

-additional briefings needed

-future meetings/activities


The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
September 11, 2014


Location:

Westin Tysons Corner
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Eric Whitaker
Contact Email:  ewhitaker@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-1481

Agenda


Wednesday, August 6

Open Session

9:30-10:30 Jeff Jonas to discuss big data

10:30-10:45 Break

10:45-12:30 Panel discussion on the intelligence process:
Mark Lowenthal, Philip Mudd

12:30PM Adjourn Open Session

Note: The data gathering sessions of this meeting to be held on August 4, 2014, from 8:00 am – 4:00 pm, EDT, and August 5, 2014, from 8:00 am – 4:00 pm, EST, will not be open to the public under Subsection 15(b)(3) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. The Academy has determined that to open these sessions to the public would disclose information described in 5 U.S.C. 552(b).
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Robert Sproull
William DuMouchel
Butler Lampson
Susan Landau
Michael Leiter
Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker
Peter Weinberger

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

-study outline

-use cases

-speaker presentations

-additional briefings needed

-future meetings/activities


The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
August 18, 2014


Location:

National Academy of Sciences Building
2100 C St. NW
Washington D.C.
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Eric Whitaker
Contact Email:  ewhitaker@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-1481

Agenda

OPEN SESSION

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM Joel Brenner, Joel Brenner LLC; The
Chertoff Group (former Inspector General,
NSA)

11:30 AM - 12:00 PM Discussion

12:00 PM - 1:00 PM Adjourn open session

OPEN SESSION

1:00 PM - 2:00 PM Carmen Medina, Deloitte Consulting LLP
(former CIA, Deputy Director for
Intelligence)

2:00 PM - 3:00 PM Mark Maybury, Chief Technology Officer,
MITRE Corporation

3:00 PM - 3:30 PM Discussion

3:30 PM Adjourn Open Session


Tuesday, July 1

OPEN SESSION

9:00 AM - 10:00 AM General Keith B. Alexander, USA, Retired

10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Chris Inglis, former Deputy Director, NSA

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM Discussion

12:00 PM Adjourn Open Session

OPEN SESSION

2:00 PM - 3:00 PM Wesley Wilson, ODNI/NCTC

3:00 PM Adjourn Open Session


Wednesday, July 2

OPEN SESSION

9:00 AM - 10:00 AM Robert Brose, ODNI

10:00 AM – 11:00 AM William Crowell, Alsop-Louie Partners
former Deputy Director, NSA)

11:00 AM - 11:30 AM Stephanie O’Sullivan, Principal Deputy
Director of National Intelligence; Dave
Honey, ODNI (via teleconference)

11:30 AM Adjourn Open Session

OPEN SESSION

1:30 PM - 2:30 PM Marjory Blumenthal, OSTP

2:30 PM Adjourn Open Session
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Robert Sproull
Frederick Chang
William DuMouchel
Butler Lampson
Susan Landau
Michael Leiter
Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

-study charge

-speaker presentations

-additional briefings needed

-future meetings/activities

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
July 21, 2014


Location:

Keck Center
500 5th Street, NW
Washington D.C. 20001

Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Eric Whitaker
Contact Email:  ewhitaker@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-1481

Agenda

Monday June 16

9:30 - 11:00 am Charge to committee
Dr. David Honey, Office of the Director for National Intelligence

11:00 Adjourn open session



Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Robert Sproull
Frederick Chang
Michael Kearns (via teleconference)
Butler Lampson
Susan Landau
Michael Leiter
Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker


The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

-Committee Composition and balance

-Study charge

-Study approach and plan

-Briefers and other information sources


The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
June 20, 2014

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