Gary L. Cowger
GLC Ventures, LLC
GARY L. COWGER (NAE) is chairman and CEO of GLC Ventures, LLC, a consulting firm he founded after retiring from General Motors Corporation (GMC) as the group vice president for manufacturing and labor. He previously held a variety of other positions at GM, including president and managing director of GM de Mexico; manufacturing vice president for GM Europe; chairman, Adam Opel AG; and president, GM North America. Mr. Cowger has extensive experience in benchmarking, target-setting, and the creation and application of organizational and production-based performance measures. Mr. Cowger holds an M.S. degree in management from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a B.S. degree in industrial engineering. His recent service on NRC committees includes the Committee on the Potential for Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies 2010-2050 and the Industrial, Manufacturing and Operational Systems Engineering Search Committee.
Christopher E. Flood
Delta Air Lines, Inc.
CHRISTOPHER E. FLOOD is captain and check airman for the Boeing 737-700/800 at Delta Air Lines, where he is also a member of the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) Event Review Committee as well as a member of several Line Operations Safety Audit working groups. Previous positions at Delta Air Lines include system manager for labor relations (responsibilities included labor relations and working agreements with all Delta pilots); Salt Lake City chief pilot (responsibilities included leadership of 700 pilots, safety of flight operations at 21 airports and investigation of operational incidents); and line pilot. CAPT Flood has also participated in Delta Air Lines’ fleet evaluation of Airbus vs. Boeing aircraft; development and implementation of standard terminal arrival routes, departure procedures and airspace enhancements; and management of flight operations at Delta’s European hub. While associated with Delta Air Lines, CAPT Flood has concurrently worked with The Aviation Law Firm, as an attorney where he assisted in the representation of clients in enforcement actions before the National Transportation Safety Board and Department of Transportation; provided consulting and legal services to air carriers operating under Part 135 of the Federal Aviation Regulations; and represented survivors of three medevac helicopter accidents in personal injury lawsuits. CAPT Flood began his aviation career in the U.S. Air Force, where he served as a pilot, weapons officer, and instructor pilot. He is a member of the District of Columbia Bar and the Flight Safety Foundation, and he is also an FAA Safety Team Representative. He is nominated to this committee primarily because of his experience with airline flight operations, management, and safety. CAPT Flood has a J.D. from the University of Cincinnati.
Michael S. Francis
United Technologies Research Center
MICHAEL S. FRANCIS is the chief, advanced programs and a senior fellow at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), leading its initiative in autonomous and intelligent systems. He also serves as the program executive for autonomous systems at Sikorsky Innovations, guiding Sikorsky’s entry into the optionally-piloted and unmanned aeronautical systems market. Dr. Francis’ involvement with research and development of unmanned air systems dates to the early 1990s when he initiated the Unmanned Tactical Aircraft program which later became the Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Program while at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. During that period, he also initiated the agency’s first Micro Air Vehicle Program and directed the award winning U.S.-German X-31 International Experimental Fighter Aircraft Program through flight test. He was also the DARPA Program Director for the $4 billion DARPA-Air Force-Navy Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems Office. Dr. Francis’ 27-year military career spanned the spectrum of aviation and space research and development, beginning with his assignment to the U.S. Air Force Academy as a research scientist and professor. He later served as a program manager for advanced aerodynamics research and development at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. There, he established the Air Force’s first turbulent flow control program. He went on to serve at the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, where he managed a variety of advanced space system development efforts, including classified programs, for the Air Force and the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. In his last military assignment as the integrator and architect for the Pentagon’s Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office, then Col Francis led the development of the first Department of Defense integrated air-space surveillance architecture in collaboration with the National Reconnaissance Office. Following his military retirement in 1997, Dr. Francis became the first president of Athena Technologies, then a small, start-up company specializing in advanced digital control systems for robotic applications. Dr. Francis later joined Lockheed Martin as an executive at its Corporate Headquarters, leading a team that developed cross-corporation and strategic initiatives. Immediately prior to joining United Technologies Research Center, Francis served as the chief operating officer of the Photonics Division of General Atomics. Dr. Francis is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Francis is nominated to this committee primarily because of his experience in managing a wide array of defense programs, including programs involving autonomous aircraft. He has a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering sciences as well as an honorary doctoral degree from the University of Colorado.
University of Colorado Boulder
ERIC FREW is an associate professor and director of the Research and Engineering Center for Unmanned Vehicles at the University of Colorado Boulder. He is also the Colorado University site director for the National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Dr. Frew has led the development and field deployment of a variety of unmanned aircraft systems for communication and sensing applications. He was one of the lead members of the team that performed the first-ever sampling of the rear flank gust front of a tornadic supercell thunderstorm using a small unmanned aircraft system. Dr. Frew’s research efforts focus on autonomous flight of heterogeneous unmanned aircraft systems; optimal distributed sensing by mobile robots; controlled mobility in ad-hoc sensor networks; miniature self-deploying systems; and guidance and control of unmanned aircraft in complex atmospheric phenomena. He received the National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Award in 2009 and was selected for the 2010 DARPA Computer Science Study Group. Dr. Frew is nominated to this committee primarily because of his expertise in communications and sensing networks as they apply to autonomous vehicles. He has a Ph.D. in Aeronautics and Astronautics from Stanford University.
ANDREW LACHER is the UAS integration research lead and a senior principal with The MITRE Corporation. He is responsible for strategic coordination of MITRE’s research associated with the integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) into civil airspace and with the challenges associated with the integration of complex automation technologies in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Mr. Lacher is part of a cross-corporate team exploring the implications of autonomy for MITRE’s broad sponsor base. Mr. Lacher has over twenty-five years of system engineering, management, and strategic research planning experience in a variety of aviation domains. Mr. Lacher was heavily involved with the collaborative decision-making initiative which established a real-time link between airline operational control and the FAA’s Traffic Flow Management office. Mr. Lacher was part of the implementation of the FAA’s Joint Planning and Development Office and the initial definition of NextGen. Mr. Lacher has also worked as a strategic airline consultant responsible for the planning and integration of the information technical infrastructure to support system operations, flight dispatch and release, weight and balance, maintenance, crew scheduling and planning, and performance monitoring. He was Manager of Customer Integration for ORBCOMM, Inc. Mr. Lacher is nominated to this committee primarily because of his close involvement with the FAA in developing a major, decades-long improvement to the U.S. air transportation system (NextGen), which will include a much higher degree of automation than the current air transportation system. Mr. Lacher has an M.S. in operations research from the George Washington University. Mr. Lacher is a member of the NRC’s Aeronautics Research and Technology Roundtable and a former member Panel E: Intelligent and Autonomous Systems, Operations and Decision Making, Human Integrated Systems, Networking, and Communications for the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics.
John D. Lee
University of Wisconsin-Madison
JOHN D. LEE is the Emerson Professor in the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Previously he was with the University of Iowa, where he was the director of human factors research at the National Advanced Driving Simulator. Before moving to the University of Iowa, he was a research scientist at the Battelle Human Factors Transportation Center for six years. His research focuses on the safety and acceptance of complex human-machine systems by considering how technology mediates attention. Specific research interests include trust in technology, advanced driver assistance systems, and driver distraction. He is a coauthor of the textbook An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering and the author or coauthor of 170 articles. He recently helped edit the book Driver Distraction: Theory, Effects, and Mitigation. Dr. Lee serves on the editorial board of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making; Cognition, Technology and Work; International Journal of Human Factors Modeling and Simulation; and is the associate editor for the journals Human Factors and IEEE-Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. He received the Ely Award for best paper in the journal Human Factors (2002), and the best paper award for the journal Ergonomics (2005). He is nominated to this committee primarily because of his expertise in human factors, especially with regard to ground vehicles. Dr. Lee has a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has been a member of seven NRC study groups, most recently the Committee on Electronic Vehicle Controls and Unintended Acceleration, the Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Century, and the Committee on Human-Systems Integration.
Kenneth M. Rosen
General Aero-Science Consultants, LLC
KENNETH M. ROSEN, NAE, is president of General Aero-Science Consultants LLC. Previously he was president (and a founding partner) of Aero-Science Technology Associates, LLC, which is an engineering and business development consulting firm established to service both government and industry customers. Before founding Aero-Science Technology Associates in 2000, Dr. Rosen spent 38 years with the United Technologies Corporation, primarily with Sikorsky Aircraft. Dr. Rosen held many major engineering and management positions at Simorsky, including vice president of research and engineering and vice president of advanced programs and processes. He directed advanced technology military and commercial projects as the Comanche helicopter, the S-92 helicopter (which won the 2003 Collier trophy), the Cypher unmanned air vehicle, the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter, the SH-60 Seahawk helicopter, the S-76 helicopter, and X-wing helicopters. During this time Dr. Rosen managed all of Sikorsky’s research, systems engineering, product development, design, production engineering, ground and flight test and avionics and systems integration efforts. Dr. Rosen was a member of the Sikorsky Executive Board and was also responsible for all of the company’s advanced products and low observable activities. He has served the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Tactical Technology Office as a senior advisor supporting advanced aerospace research programs such as the Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft, Heliplane, and Heavy Lift Helicopter. Recently he helped prepare the Future of Vertical Lift Aviation study for the U.S. Army and DARPA. He is an elected member of the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering, and a fellow in the following societies: the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Royal Aeronautical Society, the Society of Automotive Engineers, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the American Helicopter Society. He is a recipient of the NASA Civilian Public Service Medal, the Dr. Alexander Klemin Award for lifetime achievement from the American Helicopter Society, and Vice President Al Gore’s “Hammer” award from the Department of Defense for innovative cost management.. He has been chairman of the board of the Rotorcraft Industry Technology Association, chairman of the United Technologies Corporation Engineering Coordination Steering Committee, Vice Chairman of the Software Productivity Consortium, and Chairman of the Aerospace Industries Association Rotorcraft Advisory Group. He has also been a member of NASA’s Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Advisory Committee, and the SAE Aerospace Council. He holds five U.S. patents and has authored numerous papers in the fields of helicopter design, tilt rotor optimization, product development, propulsion, aerothermodynamics, icing, and systems engineering. Dr. Rosen is nominated to this committee primarily because of his expertise in manned and unmanned rotorcraft. He has a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and is a graduate of the Advanced Management Program at the Harvard University Business School. Dr. Rosen has served as a member of the NRC’s Panel on Mechanical Science and Engineering at the Army Research Laboratory and the Panel on Mechanical Science and Engineering at the Army Research Laboratory, and the Panel on Air and Ground Vehicle Technology.
Northrup Grumman Aerospace Systems
LAEL RUDD is the autonomy development lead at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, which is a major developer and manufacturer of unmanned air vehicles, including the Global Hawk. He has led the technical efforts for various aircraft and military space programs and proposals, providing control laws to assist with development of a human-in-the-loop testbed. Prior to working at Northrop Grumman, Dr. Rudd worked for the Aerospace Corporation, first in the Guidance and Controls Department and later in the Flight Software Validation Department. Dr. Rudd is an associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, serving on the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee, and a Senior Member of IEEE. He has been a part-time lecturer at University of California, Los Angeles and the University of Southern California, he holds two patents and eight trade secrets within the Northrop Grumman, and he has published technical papers on the subjects of hypersonic vehicle stability and control, trajectory optimization, adaptive control, and control of both micro-air vehicles and spacecraft. Dr. Rudd is nominated to this committee primarily because of his work on autonomy at a major manufacturer of unmanned air vehicles. He has a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from the University of Maryland, College Park.
PATRICIA VERVERS is an engineer fellow at Honeywell Aerospace. She works in the Human Centered Systems Group in Honeywell’s Advanced Technology Group in Columbia, MD. Since joining Honeywell, Dr. Ververs has led programs in the areas of high speed research, flight critical systems research, the System Wide Accident Prevention Project of NASA’s Aviation Safety Program, advanced primary flight displays, improving information intake under stress and/or augmented cognition, neurotechnology for information analysts, synthetic and enhanced vision systems, combined vision systems, and advanced features for commercial helicopters. Dr. Ververs areas of interest include avionics display design, alerting and notification, cognitive state assessment, and human factors evaluation. Currently, she serves as the technical lead for the Honeywell Combined Vision Systems Program, which is designing and evaluating a next-generation avionics display that integrates real-time infrared imagery with Honeywell’s innovative synthetic vision technology for advanced cockpits. The Combined Vision Systems research team received the 2011 Honeywell Corporate Innovation award. She also leads a program to bring similar display technology to commercial helicopters to provide pilots with situation awareness of the surrounding terrain and obstacles. Dr. Ververs currently serves as the U.S.-based staff scientist on the European Union’s Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research program for head-up and head-down synthetic and combined vision solutions. She is also the human factors lead on the Boeing team for the FAA Systems Engineering 2020 program. Dr. Ververs regularly serves on RTCA Special Committees establishing minimum aviation system performance standards for new avionics equipment. She holds seven patents on alerting and notification, display design, and workload monitoring and has filed more than a dozen other patents in the areas of display design and the human-machine interface. She is a five-time recipient of Honeywell Aerospace’s Technical Award. She received the Avionics Magazine’s Women in Technology Emerging Leader Award in 2012 and the 1999 Stanley N. Roscoe award from the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society for the best doctoral dissertation in the area of aerospace human factors. She is nominated to this committee primarily because of her experience in developing avionic systems for a wide range of aircraft. She has a Ph.D. in engineering psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Larrell B. Walters
University of Dayton Research Institute
LARRELL B. WALTERS is the head of the Sensor Systems Division of the University of Dayton Research Institute, a division that has grown from 3 to more than 75 people in just over 6 years. The scope of the division’s work encompasses wide-area situational awareness, image processing and exploitation algorithms, visualization, human factors, and unmanned autonomous systems. Mr. Waters is also the director of the Institute for the Development and Commercialization of Advanced Sensor Technology, which is a collaborative research entity consisting of eight universities and over 20 companies. Previously Mr. Walters worked in commercial aerospace for 20 years with Goodyear and Goodrich to provide advanced technical solutions and aircraft systems for the airline industry. He led technical product support and sales teams before becoming vice president of operations for a large business unit that overhauled a wide array of items removed from commercial aircraft. Mr. Walters subsequently moved into the field of microelectronics, serving as president of two companies that designed and built complex circuitry and developed capital assets that supported the manufacture of silicon-based electrical devices. He has received several awards, most recently the Award for Excellence in Technical Leadership from the Affiliate Societies Council Dayton and the Honorary Alumnus Award from the Sinclair Community College for helping them establish an extensive program for unmanned autonomous systems education and certification. He is nominated to this committee primarily because of his expertise in advanced sensors and their application to unmanned autonomous vehicles. Mr. Waters has an M.B.A. from Kent State University.
David D. Woods
The Ohio State University
DAVID WOODS is a professor in the Department of Integrated Systems Engineering and the Institute for Ergonomics at The Ohio State University. He also leads the university-wide Initiative on Complexity in Natural, Social, and Engineered Systems. A pioneer in cognitive systems engineering for human-computer decision making in emergencies, Dr. Woods studies the brittleness and resilience of human-automation systems—in crisis response, in nuclear power emergencies, in pilot-automation teams, in anomaly response in space shuttle mission operations, in critical care medicine, in professional information analysis, and with robots (unmanned air vehicles and unmanned ground vehicles) in military and disaster response missions. He has investigated accidents in nuclear power, aviation, space, and anesthesiology, and was an advisor to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. A new direction in his research on safety is how to engineer resilience into systems that manage high risk processes. As a pioneer in developing this new direction, he is co-editor of two books (Resilience Engineering, 2006, and Resilience Engineering in Practice, 2011) and 20 publications on this topic. His latest book in preparation is titled, Outmaneuvering Complexity. Other books include Behind Human Error (1994; 2nd edition 2010), Joint Cognitive Systems: Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering (2005), and Joint Cognitive Systems: Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering (2006). Dr. Woods is currently president of the Resilience Engineering Association and past-president and a fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, and a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and the American Psychological Association. He is co-recipient of the Ely Award for best paper in the journal Human Factors (1994). He has also received the Laurels Award from Aviation Week and Space Technology (1995) for research on the human factors of highly automated cockpits, the Jack Kraft Innovators Award from the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (2002), and the Jimmy Doolittle Fellow Award for Research on Human Performance from the Air Force Association (2012). Dr. Woods has served as a member of the FAA’s Human Factors Study Team on Advanced Flight Decks (1996), Aerospace Research Needs (2003), and Dependable Software (2006). Dr. Woods participated as a member of a recent Defense Science Board task force that released a report in 2012 titled The Role of Autonomy in DoD Systems, and he has testified to the U.S. Congress on safety at NASA and on election reform. Dr. Woods is nominated to this committee primarily because of his expertise in cognitive system engineering, particularly with regard to automated systems and aviation applications. He has a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from Purdue University. He has served as a member on the NRC’s Committee on “Sufficient Evidence? Building Certifiably Dependable Software Systems,” the Committee on Engineering and the Delivery of Health Care, Committee on Aeronautics Research and Technology for Vision 2050, and the Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research.
Edward L. Wright
University of California, Los Angeles
EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, is the David Saxon Presidential Chair in Physics and a professor of astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Wright’s research interests are in theoretical and experimental infrared astronomy and cosmology, especially cosmic microwave background radiation studies. He played a major role on the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission, and in 1992 he received the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal for this work. He is a co-investigator on NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, a mission that is a follow-up to the COBE discovery of fluctuations in the early universe. Dr. Wright participated in the Joint Efficient Dark-energy Investigation and he is an interdisciplinary scientist on the NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope Science Working Group. Dr. Wright is the principal investigator for the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer MidEx mission launched in 2009. He is nominated to this committee primarily because of his experience with autonomous systems on scientific spacecraft. Dr. Wright has a Ph.D. in astronomy from Harvard University. He has been a member of the NRC’s Committee on NASA's Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation; the Panel on Astronomy and Astrophysics; the Committee on Physics of the Universe; and the Panel on Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Astronomy from Space.