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Project Information

Project Information


Scientific Review of the Feasibility of Mycoherbicides in Eradicating Illicit Drug Crops


Project Scope:

The National Research Council will form an expert committee to examine scientific issues associated with the feasibility of developing and implementing mycoherbicides based on two fungi, Fusarium oxysporum and Pleospora papaveracea, as a means to eradicate illicit drug crops (i.e., coca, cannabis, and the opium poppy), including an evaluation of the potential human health, ecological, and environmental risks associated with their use and areas of future research and development needed for implementation.

The study will assess the following issues associated with the potential use of naturally-occurring strains of Fusarium oxysporum and Pleospora papaveracea in eradicating illicit drug crops: (1) their effectiveness in eradicating targeted plants; (2) their pathogenicity and toxicity to non-targeted organisms, including other plants, fungi, animals, and humans; (3) their potential spread and persistence in the environment; (4) their potential for mutation and resulting toxicity to non-targeted organisms; (5) the feasibility of their large-scale industrial manufacture and delivery; and (6) future research and development needed for implementation, such as mode of action studies. Specific questions to be addressed during the study in these areas include the following:

Effectiveness:
-- Are the drug crops (cannibas, opium poppy, coca) known to be susceptible to the proposed mycoherbicides?
-- Have the mechanisms of action of the mycoherbicides' toxicity to illicit drug crops been established?
-- Are the proposed mycoherbicides host-plant specific?
-- What quantities of mycoherbicides would be needed to eradicate illicit drug crops?
-- How would the method of delivery affect the effectiveness of the mycoherbicides in eradicating the drug crops?

Toxicity to non-targeted organisms:
-- Do the proposed mycoherbicides harm licit crops or kill other soil fungi?
-- Do they threaten biodiversity or pose other risks to the environment?
-- What is the nature of the health risks to animals and humans from the use of the proposed mycoherbicide?
-- What is the range of transmission of the proposed mycoherbicides and what factors influence its spread?
-- Once released, are the pathogens uncontrollable?

Persistence in the environment:
-- How long are the mycoherbicides likely to persist in the environment after application?
-- Do the mycoherbicides have geographical or climatic boundaries?
-- What combination of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, depth in soil, pH) favor persistence after application?
-- What conditions would shorten the persistence of the proposed mycoherbicides in the environment?
-- Can persistence of the mycoherbicides in the environment be controlled?

Potential for mutation and resulting toxicity to targeted and non-targeted organisms:
-- What is the potential for the pathogens to mutate?
-- Are there environmental or other conditions that would drive mutations in the mycoherbicides?
-- Does the potential for mutation pose additional risks to non-targeted organisms (including other plants, fungi, animals, and humans) or the environment?
-- How might mutations affect the susceptibility of the target crops to the mycoherbicides?
-- How might mutations affect the toxicity of mycoherbicides generally?

The feasibility of large-scale manufacture and delivery:
-- What sort of facility would be required for the large-scale industrial manufacture of the proposed mycoherbicides?
-- What sort of equipment and technology would be required for the delivery of the proposed mycoherbicides on a large scale?
-- What is the overall technical feasibility of the large-scale industrial manufacture of the proposed mycoherbicides?
-- What consideration would need to be made for large-scale delivery of the proposed mycoherbicides?
-- What types of field trials testing of the proposed agents is needed (e.g., is testing in tropical, arid, etc. environments required)?

Research and development needs:
-- Can the effectiveness of the mycoherbicides in eradicating illicit drug crops be improved through research and development?
-- What types of expertise would be most relevant for improving the effectiveness and safety of the proposed mycoherbicides?
-- What type of research and technology would improve the production and delivery of the mycoherbicides?
-- What type of testing would be needed before mycoherbicides could be safely and effectively used as a means for eradicating illicit drug crops (e.g., mode of action studies)?
-- What would be required under U.S. federal and state law to test and approve a mycoherbicide of this type and what guidelines from the International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animal and Plants (IOBC) would apply?

The project is sponsored by the Office of National Drug Control Policy.

The approximate start date for the project is September 28, 2009.

A report will be issued at the end of the project in approximately 24 months.

Status: Completed

PIN: BANR-O-08-05-A

Project Duration (months): 26 month(s)

RSO: Martel, Susan

Topic(s):

Environment and Environmental Studies



Geographic Focus:

Committee Membership

Committee Post Date: 06/02/2010

Raghavan Charudattan - (Chair)
University of Florida

Raghavan Charudattan (Chair) is professor emeritus in the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Florida, with over 35 years of service. His major field of interest is the biological control of weeds with plant pathogens. Dr. Charudattan has produced substantial scholarly work including five books, 25 book chapters, and over 90 peer-reviewed journal articles. He served on the NRC Committee on Pest and Pathogen Control through Management of Biological Control Agents and Enhanced Cycles and Natural Processes. His more recent recognitions include Outstanding Weed Scientist from the Florida Weed Science Society in 2006, the Career Achievement Award from the Florida Phytopathological Society in 2007, and the Outstanding Research Award from the Weed Science Society of America in 2009. Dr. Charudattan was elected a fellow of the Weed Science Society of America in 2000 and a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society in 2005. He is a founder of the journal Biological Control, Theory and Application in Pest Management, was the journal editor from 1991 to 2006, and continues to serve as a member of the editorial board. He is a holder or co-holder of several U.S. patents which include the patent for Phomopsis species fungus as a broad-spectrum bioherbicide to control several species of pigweeds and the patent for the use of Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV)-mediated lethal hypersensitive response (HR) as a novel method of weed control. Dr. Charudattan received his Ph.D. from the University of Madras, India.
Joan Wennstrom Bennett
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick

Joan W. Bennett is a professor in the Department of Plant Biology and Pathology at Rutgers University. She is also associate vice president for promoting women in science, engineering and mathematics. Her research interests include fungal genetics and mycotoxins; fungal biodegradation and biotechnology; fungal genomics; bioethics; and history of microbiology. In collaboration with scientists at the Southern Regional Research Laboratory of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Dr. Bennett has pioneered research on the genetics and biosynthesis of aflatoxins. Her laboratory has been involved in genome projects for Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. oryzae. She has held a number of leadership roles in the scientific community, including chair of the biology division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, president of the Society for Industrial Microbiology, and president of the American Society of Microbiology. She was elected to the National Academy of Science in 2005. Dr. Bennett earned her Ph.D. in botany from the University of Chicago.
Jerome J. Cura
The Science Collaborative

Jerome J. Cura is founder of the Science Collaborative, a resource network of senior environmental and public health scientists from the consulting industry and academia, and was a founding member of Cura Environmental and Menzie-Cura & Associates. His research interests are in ecological risk assessment. He has conducted such assessments in terrestrial environments, freshwater systems, and in marine and estuarine habitats. He has developed guidance for conducting risk assessments at dredging sites and has experience conducting assessments at CERCLA and RCRA sites. Dr. Cura is chair of the Ecological Risk Assessment Specialty Group of the Society for Risk Analysis. He received his Ph.D. in biological oceanography from the University of Maine.
William E. Fry
Cornell University

William E. Fry is professor in the Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology at Cornell University. He also serves as dean of the Cornell University Faculty. His research interests are in plant disease control and epidemiology, population genetics, host-pathogen interactions, and disease resistance. Of specific interest are the basic biology and management of potato late blight and its pathogen, Phytophthora infestans and the use of genomic approaches and computer simulations to characterize the pathogenicity of populations of P. infestans. His laboratory has characterized the role of biopesticides and “green” fungicides in the management of late blight, demonstrated the potential role of petunia in the epidemiology of late blight, and predicted the epidemiologic impact of exotic strains of P. infestans in the United States. Dr. Fry received his Ph.D. in plant pathology from Cornell University.
Guy R. Knudsen
University of Idaho

Guy R. Knudsen is professor of microbial ecology and plant pathology at the University of Idaho. His research interests are in the biological control of plant pathogens using antagonistic bacteria and fungi; soil and rhizosphere microbial associations with indigenous plant species; microbiology of aquatic, riparian, wetland, and soil habitats; fate of genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment; and the prediction and management of fungal epizootics of insect pests. Dr. Knudsen was a member of the National Research Council committee that organized the Workshop on Research to Improve the Evaluation of the Impacts of Genetically Engineered Organisms on Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife and Habitats. He received his Ph.D. in plant pathology from Cornell University and his J.D. from William Howard Taft University.
John F. Leslie
Kansas State University

John F. Leslie is professor and head of the Department of Plant Pathology at Kansas State University. He has been teaching researchers from around the world how to identify Fusarium species, the diseases they cause, and the toxic compounds they can produce. His broader research interests include biochemical, molecular, and population genetics of model and plant pathogenic fungi. He was a senior Fulbright Scholar at the University of Sydney, Australia. He is a fellow of the American Phytopathological Society and an honorary fellow at St. Paul’s College, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. He is an adjunct professor at Seoul National University in Korea, and a research associate at the Royal Botanical Gardens in Sydney, Australia. Dr. Leslie earned his Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Nu-May R. Reed
California Environmental Protection Agency

Nu-May Ruby Reed is a staff toxicologist with the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Department of Pesticide Regulation, where she is the lead scientist on risk assessment issues. Her research interests are in evaluating health risks and developing risk assessment guidelines for pesticides. She has been on several Cal/EPA working groups that initiate, research and revise risk assessment guidelines and policies, and represented her department in task forces on community concerns and emergency response, risk management guidance and public education. Dr. Reed was a member of the NRC Committee on Risk Analysis and Reviews, and is a current member of the NRC Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. She received her M.S. in botany and her Ph.D. in plant physiology from the University of California at Davis.
Judith C. Rhodes
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Judith C. Rhodes is professor in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Her research interests are in understanding the pathogenesis of fungal infections, with a focus on infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Recent efforts have been directed toward establishing in vitro tissue culture assays to assist in isolating genes that are potentially involved in virulence. Dr. Rhodes is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, a past president of the Medical Mycological Society of the Americas, and a former chair of the medical mycology division (Division F) of the American Society for Microbiology. She received her Ph.D. in microbiology and immunology from the University of California at Los Angeles.
John W. Taylor
University of California, Berkeley

John W. Taylor is a professor in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology at the University of California at Berkeley. He studies the pattern and process of fungal evolution, with a long term goal of making fungi the best models for evolutionary biology. His more recent research emphasis involves using genetics and genomics to find genes that maintain species and facilitate adaptation. He is a former vice president of the International Mycological Association, a former president of the Mycological Society of America, and is a fellow of that society and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Among Dr. Taylor’s other honors are the award for Distinguish Mycologist from the Mycological Society of America, the Rhoda Benham Medal from the Medical Mycological Society of the Americas, and the Lucille K. Georg Medal from the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. He received his Ph.D. in mycology from the University of California at Davis.
David O. TeBeest
University of Arkansas

David O. TeBeest is a professor in the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Arkansas. His research interests are in the molecular ecology, epidemiology, and genetics of fungal plant pathogens of grain, sorghum, and rice, especially Colletotrichum species, rice blast, and smuts of rice. He also continues to study the biological control of weeds to provide continued refinement to Collego, the world’s first bioherbicide developed for use in row-crop agriculture. Recent work has focused on the dynamics of inter-strain competition and host selection factors in strain competition of effective strains. Dr. TeBeest was the recipient of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Award for Superior Service for Pioneering Research and the University of Arkasas’s Gamma Sigma Delta Award of Merit and the John W. White Award for Research. He received his Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of Wisconsin.
Ariena H. van Bruggen
University of Florida

Ariena H.C. van Bruggen is a plant disease epidemiologist and professor of plant pathology at the Emerging Pathogens Institute and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida. She is involved in fundamental and applied research on the health of ecosystems in relation to invasion by plant and human pathogens. Recent work has focused on pathways and mechanisms through which plant pathogens and microbes move through successive ecosystems as dependent on available resources. Other work has examined the ability of certain organisms in agroecosystems to disperse over time and across space. Her work contributes to the understanding how certain diseases progress and is credited with discovering a new plant pathogen, Rhizomonas suberifaciens. Dr. van Bruggen is the recipient of the Ciba-Geigy Award from the American Phytopathological Society and the the Jakob Eriksson Gold Medal from the Swedish Academy of Science. She received her Ph.D. in plant pathology from Cornell University.
Maurizio Vurro
National Research Council of Italy

Maurizio Vurro is a senior researcher at the Institute of Sciences and Food Production at the National Research Council in Italy. His studies have focused on the production, purification, identification, and biological characterization of toxins produced by plant pathogenic fungi and on their role in plant-pathogen interactions. Since 1991, Mr. Vurro began studying the biological control of weeds using fungal plant pathogens and their phytotoxins. His fields of specialization include the isolation and identification of new weed biocontrol agents; production, purification, and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by weed pathogens; the role of toxins in plant-pathogen interactions; evaluation of the herbicidal potential of phytotoxins; the integration of biological and chemical control strategies; and biological control of parasitic weeds. He coordinated the European Research Project on enhancement and exploitation of soil biocontrol agents for bio-constrain management in crops. Mr. Vurro has served as the coordinator of the Working Group Parasitic Weeds of the European Weed Research Society since 2006. He is the senior editor of Phytopathologia Mediterranea, and serves on the editorial board of the journal Food Security. Mr. Vurro earned his B.Sc. at the University of Bari, Faculty of Agricultural Science.
Alan K. Watson
McGill University

Alan K. Watson is professor in the Department of Plant Science at McGill University. His research is broadly based in integrated pest management and sustainable agricultural systems while focusing on weed management. His major research interests are: the use of indigenous plant pathogens as bioherbicides; assessment of exotic plant pathogens as biological control agents of introduced weeds; population dynamics of weed species with emphasis on herbaceous perennials; and the development of integrated weed management systems in temperate and tropical regions. His research program seeks to understand the processes involved in host-pathogen interactions, to investigate mechanisms involved in disease development and weed host response, and to use this knowledge to select, develop, and implement effective, safe, and sustainable means to reduce the negative impact of major noxious weeds. His studies span research biocontrol methods for less developed nations and subsistence farmers. His research team successfully developed effective biocontrol strategies for several weeds in rice in Asia, and a Fusarium oxysporum-based bioherbicide against Striga hermonthica, a root parasitic weed that is considered as the scourge of African cereal crops. Dr. Watson earned his Ph.D. in weed science from the University of Saskatchewan.
Charles P. Woloshuk
Purdue University

Charles P. Woloshuk is a professor in the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology at Purdue University. His research interests include corn/mycotoxin pathology, and the genetics, biochemistry, and physiology of mycotoxin biosynthesis. His long range research program goals are to investigate the biosynthesis of various mycotoxins and to develop novel approaches for eliminating the risk of mycotoxin contamination of food sources. He uses mycotoxin-producing fungi as model systems to advance the current understanding of secondary metabolism in fungi. Dr. Woloshuk’s also is involved in the evaluation of mycotoxins associated with grain harvest, storage, and management practices, with an objective to inform and educate the grain producers, handlers, and processors about mycotoxin impacts. He also leads workshops on the use of mycotoxin test kits. He received his Ph.D. in plant pathology from the Washington State University.

Committee Membership Roster Comments

March 2010: There has been a change to the committee. Dr. Deborah Bennett will not serve.
June 2010: Committee membership updated with the addition of Dr. Rhodes.

Events



Location:

Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center
100 Academy Way, Irvine, CA 92617
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
This meeting is closed in its entirety.
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Raghavan Charudattan (chair)
Jerome Cura (via conference call)
William Fry (via conference call)
Guy Knudsen
John Leslie
Nu-May Reed
Judith Rhodes
John Taylor
David TeBeest
Ariena van Bruggen
Maurizio Vurro
Alan Watson
and Charles Woloshuk.

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

Draft report

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
March 09, 2011
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center
100 Academy Way, Irvine, CA 92617
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
This meeting is closed in its entirety.
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Raghavan Charudattan (chair)
Jerome Cura
William Fry
Guy Knudsen
John Leslie
Nu-May Reed
John Taylor
David TeBeest
Maurizio Vurro
Alan Watson (via conference call)
and Charles Woloshuk.

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

Draft report

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
January 26, 2011
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

Melrose Hotel
2430 Pennsylvania Ave NW
Washington, DC 20037
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
PUBLIC AGENDA

Wednesday, September 15

PUBLIC SESSION

9:15
Welcome, Introductions, Process for Open Session
Raghavan Charudattan, Chair

9:30
Methods for Delivering Mycoherbicides and Increasing System Effectiveness
Christopher Eusebi, Harness, Dickey & Pierce, PLC
and
Brent Nowak, University of Texas at San Antonio

10:30
Public Session Adjourns
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Raghavan Charudattan (chair)
Joan Bennett
Jerome Cura
William Fry
Guy Knudsen
John Leslie
Nu-May Reed
Judith Rhodes
John Taylor
David TeBeest
Ariena van Bruggen
Maurizio Vurro
Alan Watson
and Charles Woloshuk

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

1. Standard NRC discussion of policies, procedures, conflict of interest, and bias
2. Information provided in the presentations made during the public session
3. Draft report

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

Myco-7
Brent Nowak, University of Texas at San Antonio
September 15, 2010
Christopher Eusebi, Harness, Dickey & Pierce, PLC
Nowak, B., and E. Eusebi. 2010. Methods for Delivering Mycoherbicides and Increasing System Effectiveness (Power Point slide)

Myco-8
Robert Williams
September 15, 2010
Public comment handout
Williams, R. 2010. Public comment by Robert Williams.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
September 22, 2010
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

Keck Center
500 5th St NW, Washington, DC 20001
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
Second Meeting: June 23, 2010
National Academies Keck Center
500 Fifth Street, NW, Room 202
Washington, DC

PUBLIC AGENDA

9:00
Welcome, Introductions, Process for Open Session
Raghavan Charudattan, Chair

9:15
Perspectives from the USDA Forest Service
Hank Appleton
National Toxicologist
Forest Service, USDA

9:35
Mycoherbicide Research Conducted at USDA
Bryan Bailey
Research Plant Pathologist
Agricultural Research Service, USDA

10:35
Break

10:50
A Historical Perspective
John Bargeron
Acting Director
Office of Policy and Planning, USDS

Scott Harris
Office of Policy and Planning, USDS

11:20
Commercial Production of Mycoherbicides
Mark Wach
Vice President and Director of Research
Sylvan Biosciences

12:00
Open Microphone for Public Comment
Each speaker has a maximum time limit of 5 minutes. Accompanying written materials are encouraged

12:30
Break — Committee will meet in executive session until 3:45 pm. Public session will resume at 4:00

4:00
Biological Control of Striga: Progress and Promise

5:00
Adjourn
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Raghavan Charudattan
Jerome Cura
William Fry
Guy Knudsen
John Leslie
Nu-May Reed
Judith Rhodes
David TeBeest
Ariena van Bruggen
Maurizio Vurro
Alan Watson (via phone June 23)
Charles Woloshuk

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

1. Standard NRC discussion of policies, procedures, conflict of interest, and bias
2. Interpretation of the statement of task, plan of action, and draft report outline
3. Schedule and location of future committee meetings

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

Myco - 3
Bryan Bailey, USDA/ARS
Bailey, B. 2010. A Review of the USDA/ARS Biocontrol of Narcotic Plants Program (1994-2004) (Power Point slides)

Myco – 4
Mark Wach, Sylvan Biosciences
Wach, M. 2010. Commercial Production of Mycoherbicides (Power Point slides)

Myco - 5
Robert Williams
June 23, 2010
Public comment handout
Williams, R. 2010. Public comment by Robert Williams.

Myco-6
David Sands, Montana State University
June 23, 2010
Sands, D. 2010. Striga Biocontrol: Progress and Promise (Power Point slides)


Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
June 30, 2010
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

National Academy of Sciences Building
2101 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20418
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Mycoherbicides for Eradicating Illicit Drug Crops

April 20, 2010

National Academies
2100 C Street, NW, Board Room
Washington, DC

PUBLIC AGENDA

12:45
Registration for Public Session Begins

1:00
Welcome, Introductions, Process for Open Session
Raghavan Charudattan, Chair

1:15
Background and Discussion of Statement of Task
Terry Zobeck
Deputy Associate Director of Research
Office of National Drug Control Policy

Jay Ellenberger
Deputy Director, Field and External Affairs Division
Office of Pesticide Programs, EPA

Hank Appleton
Regulatory Affairs Manager
Forest Service, USDA

3:00
Open Microphone for Public Comment
Each speaker has a maximum time limit of 5 minutes. Accompanying written materials are encouraged.

3:45
Public Session Adjourns
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Raghavan Charudattan (chair)
Joan Bennett
Jerome Cura
William Fry
Guy Knudsen
John Leslie
Nu-May Reed
David TeBeest
Ariena van Bruggen
Maurizio Vurro
Alan Watson
and Charles Woloshuk.

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

1. Standard NRC discussion of policies, procedures, conflict of interest, and bias
2. Committee expertise and balance
3. Interpretation of the statement of task and plan of action
4. Schedule and location of future committee meetings

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

Myco-1
Jay Ellenberger, EPA/Pesticide Programs
April 19, 2010
Email with attachment
Ellenberger, J. 2010. Mycoherbicides: EPA’s Experience and Considerations. (Power Point slide)

Myco-2
Robert Williams
April 20, 2010
Public comment handout
Williams, R. 2010. Public comment by Bob Williams.


Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
April 27, 2010
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Publications

  • Publications having no URL can be seen at the Public Access Records Office