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Project Information

Project Information


Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water


Project Scope:

A subcommittee of the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Toxicology
(COT) will review toxicologic, epidemiologic, and clinical data, particularly
data published since 1993, and exposure data on orally ingested fluoride from
drinking water and other sources (e.g., food, toothpaste, dental rinses).
Based on those reviews the subcommittee will evaluate independently the
scientific basis of the U.S. Environmental Agency's (EPA) maximum contaminant
level goal (MCLG) of 4 milligram per liter (mg/L) and secondary maximum
contaminant level (SMCL) of 2 mg/L in drinking water. The subcommittee will
advise EPA on the adequacy of its fluoride MCLG and SMCL to protect children
and others from adverse effects. The subcommittee will consider the relative
contribution of various fluoride sources (e.g., food, dental-hygiene products)
to total exposure. The subcommittee will also identify data gaps and make
recommendations for future research relevant to setting the MCLG and SMCL for
fluoride. The subcommittee will not address questions of economics,
risk-benefit assessment, or water-treatment technology.

Sponsor: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

The approximate start date for the project is November 15, 2002.

A Final Report will be issued at the end of the project. Project duration is
approximately 24 months.

NOTE: Effective July 2004, the project duration has been extended to 30 months.

NOTE: Effective April 8, 2005, the project duration has been extended to 39
months. Project ends February 2006.

Status: Completed

PIN: BEST-K-02-05-A

Project Duration (months): 39 month(s)

RSO: Martel, Susan

Topic(s):

Health and Medicine
Policy for Science and Technology



Geographic Focus:

Committee Membership

Committee Post Date: 12/30/2003

John Doull - (Chair)
University of Kansas Medical Center

JOHN DOULL (Chair) is professor emeritus of pharmacology and toxicology at the University of Kansas Medical School. His distinguished career in toxicology includes service in a variety of leadership positions and on numerous scientific advisory committees. Most notably he is past-president of the Society of Toxicology and the American Board of Toxicology. Dr. Doull is the recipient of many awards, including the International Achievement Award from the International Society for Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the Commanders Award for Public Service from the Department of the Army, and the Stockinger Award from ACGIH, and he was the first recipient of the John Doull Award, which was established by the Central States Chapter of the Society of Toxicology to recognize his contributions to the discipline of toxicology. He is former chair of the NRC Committee on Toxicology and currently serves as vice chair of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. He is a National Associate of the National Academies. Dr. Doull received his M.D. and Ph.D. in pharmacology from the University of Chicago.
Kim Boekelheide
Brown University

KIM BOEKELHEIDE is professor and acting chair of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Brown University. His research interests are in male reproductive toxicology, particularly in the area of examining the potential roles of stem cell proliferation kinetics and local paracrine growth factors in regulation of spermatogenesis following toxicant-induced injury. He is a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Toxicology Program and was chair of the NIH Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel, Fetal Basis of Adult Disease: Role of the Environment. Dr. Boekelheide received his M.D. and Ph.D. in pathology from Duke University.
Barbara G. Farishian
Private Practice

BARBARA FARISHIAN is a practicing dentist in Washington, DC, and is a former faculty member at Georgetown University Dental School. She is a fellow of the Academy of General Dentistry, past-president of the Capitol Academy of Dentistry, and a member of the Board of Directors of the District of Columbia Dental Society, an affiliate of the American Dental Association. Prior to attending dental school, Dr. Farishian was a toxicologist at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and was on the biomedical research staff of the Wistar Institute of the University of Pennsylvania. She received her D.D.S. from the Georgetown University Dental School.
Robert L. Isaacson
State University of New York at Binghamton

ROBERT L. ISAACSON is a distinguished professor of psychology at Binghamton University. His research interests are in behavioral neuroscience, particularly the study of recovery from brain damage, functions of the limbic system, mechanisms responsible for neuronal cell death, and the neurotoxic effects of certain fluoride complexes. He is a past president of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society and is recipient of the Society's Lifetime Achievement Award. He serves on a number of editorial boards, including that of Brain Research. He has received fellow status in several scientific societies. He has served as chairperson and member of several committees of the Society for Neuroscience. In the past he has served as a member of grant review panels for NIH, NIMH, and NSF. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan.
Judith B. Klotz
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services

JUDITH B. KLOTZ is an adjunct associate professor at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Before joining the university, she was program manager of the cancer surveillance and environmental epidemiology programs at the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. Her research interests are in epidemiological studies of cancer incidence and reproductive outcomes, gene-environment interactions, evaluation of biological exposures to environmental contaminants, and the application of health risk assessment and epidemiology to public policy. She received her M.S. in genetics from the University of Michigan and her Dr P.H. in environmental health sciences from Columbia University School of Public Health.
Jayanth V. Kumar
New York State Department of Health

JAYANTH V. KUMAR is director of the Oral Health Surveillance & Research unit, Bureau of Dental Health at the New York State Department of Health. He also holds an appointment as an associate professor in the Department of Health Policy, Management, and Behavior at the School of Public Health of the University at Albany, State University of New York. His research interests are in exposure to fluoride, its effects on oral health, and health promotion and disease prevention strategies. Dr. Kumar received his dental degree from Bangalore University, M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University, and post-doctoral certificate in dental public health from the New York State Department of Health.
Hardy Limeback
University of Toronto

HARDY LIMEBACK is an associate professor and head of Preventive Dentistry at the University of Toronto, and is also a part-time practicing dentist. His research interestes are in tooth development, enamel proteins, caries, and prevention of dental fluorosis. Dr. Limeback is a former president of the Canadian Association of Dental Research. He has been involved for many years in reviewing the scientific literature related to fluoridation of drinking water. He received his Ph.D. in collagen biochemistry and D.D.S. from the University of Toronto.
Charles Poole
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

CHARLES POOLE is an associate professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health. Previously, he was with the Boston University School of Public Health. Dr. Poole?s work currently focuses on the development and utilization of epidemiologic methods and principles, including problem definition, study design, data collection, statistical analysis, and the interpretation and application of research results, including systematic review and meta-analysis. His research experience includes studies in environmental and occupational epidemiology and other substantive areas. Dr. Poole was an epidemiologist in the Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for five years and worked for a decade as an epidemiologic consultant, both with a firm and independently. He received his M.P.H in health administration from the University of North Carolina School of Public Health and his Sc.D. in epidemiology from the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Poole was a member of the IOM Committee on Gulf War and Health: Review of the Literature on Pesticides and Solvents and the NRC Committee on Estimating the Health-Risk-Reduction Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations.
J. E. Puzas
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

J. EDWARD PUZAS is the Donald and Mary Clark Professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. He also holds faculty appointments in biochemistry, biomedical engineering, oncology, and pathology and laboratory medicine. He is director of university?s Osteoporosis Center and Center for Musculoskeletal Research. His research interests are in all aspects of bone, cartilage, orthopaedic, and dental biology, with a particular interest in diseases of the skeleton, such as osteoporosis and some skeletal cancers. He also directs the osteotoxicology research core at the university?s NIEHS center program at the University of Rochester Medical Center, where he conducts research on adverse impacts of environmental agents on skeletal tissue. He has won several awards for his research, including the Kappa Delta Prize for Outstanding Orthopaedic Research and the Kroc Foundation Award for Excellence in Cartilage and Bone Research. Dr. Puzas is president of the Orthopaedic Research Society. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. in radiation biology and biophysics from the University of Rochester.
Nu-May R. Reed
California Environmental Protection Agency

NU-MAY RUBY REED is a staff toxicologist with the California Environmental Protection Agency?s Department of Pesticide Regulation, where she is the lead person on risk assessment issues in the Health Assessment Section. Her research interests are in evaluating health risks and developing dietary assessment guidelines for pesticides. She has been on several Cal/EPA working groups that initiate, research, and revise risk assessment guidelines and policies, and represented her department in task forces on community concerns and emergency response, risk management guidance, and public education. Dr. Reed is also a lecturer on health risk assessment at the University of California at Davis. She received her Ph.D. from the University of California at Davis, and is a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology.
Kathleen M. Thiessen
SENES Oak Ridge, Inc.

KATHLEEN M. THIESSEN is a senior scientist at SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., Center for Risk Analysis. She has extensive experience evaluating exposures, doses, and risks to human health from environmental contaminants and in the use of uncertainty analysis for environmental and health risk assessment. More recently, Dr. Thiessen has led a working group on dose reconstruction for the International Atomic Energy Agency?s Biosphere Modeling and Assessment Methods program. She received her Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Tennessee-Oak Ridge Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
Thomas F. Webster
Boston University School of Public Health

THOMAS WEBSTER is assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health at the Boston University School of Public Health. His research interests include methods in environmental epidemiology, mathematical modeling, and the sources, fate and hazards of persistent organic pollutants, particularly dioxins. He received his D.Sc. in environmental health from Boston University School of Public Health.

Committee Membership Roster Comments

*There has been a change in committee membership with the appointment of Dr. Robert Isaacson.
**There has been a change in the committee membership with the appointment of Dr. Hardy Limeback and the resignation of Dr. Bernard Wagner.

Events



Location:

National Academy of Sciences Building
2101 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20418
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
This meeting is closed in its entirety.
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

John Doull
Kim Boekelheide
Barbara Farishian
Robert Isaacson
Jayanth Kumar
Hardy Limeback
Edward Puzas
Ruby Reed
Kathleen Thiessen
Thomas Webster

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

1. Draft report
2. Conclusions and recommendations

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

FLU-106: Online Article: Fluoride Action Network. 2005. Fluoride chemicals leach lead into water supplies [Online]. Printout as of May 26, 2005 from the website of Medical News Today.

FLU-107: Online Article: Woffinden, B. 2005. Fluoride water causes cancer?. Boys at risk from bone tumors, shock research reveals [Online]. Printout as of June 14, 2005 from the website of The Observer.

FLU-108: Online Article: Environmental Working Group. 2005. Government asked to evaluate the cancer-causing potential of fluoride in tap water [Online]. Printout as of June 14, 2005 fro the website of the Environmental Working Group.

FLU-109: Letter: Wiles, R. 2005. Letter dated June 6, 2005 from
Richard Wiles, Senior Vice President, Environmental Working Group to C. W.
Jameson, National Toxicology Program.

FLU-110: Submission: Neurath, C. 2005. Correlation between dental
fluorosis incidence and osteosarcoma incidence amongst provinces on Kenya and
association between fluoridation and osteosarcoma in Malaysia.

FLU-111: Article: Chibole, O. 1987. Epidemiology of dental fluorosis
in Kenya. Journal of the Royal Society of Health. 107(6):242-243.

FLU-112: Article: Bovill, Jr., E.G., A. Kung?u, A. Bencivenga, M.K.
Jashran, B.S. Mbindyo, and P.M. Heda. 1985. An epidemiological study of
osteogenic sarcoma in Kenya: the variations in incidence between ethnic groups
and geographic regions, 1968-1978. International Orthopaedics. 9:59-63.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
June 28, 2005
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

Keck Center
500 5th St NW, Washington, DC 20001
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
This meeting is closed in its entirety.
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

John Doull
Kim Boekelheide
Barbara Farishian
Robert Isaacson
Judith Klotz (17th only)
Jayanth Kumar
Hardy Limeback
Edward Puzas
Ruby Reed
Kathleen Thiessen (via conference call)
Thomas Webster

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

Draft report
Conclusions and recommendations

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
September 20, 2004
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

J. Erik Jonsson Woods Hole Center
314 Quissett Ave.
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
This meeting is closed in its entirety.
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

John Doull
Kim Boekelheide
Barbara Farishian
Robert Isaacson
Judith Klotz
Jayanth Kumar
Hardy Limeback
Charles Poole
Edward Puzas
Nu-may Reed
Kathleen Thiessen
Thomas Webster

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

1. Draft report
2. Conclusions and recommendations

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

None

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
June 15, 2004
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center
100 Academy Way, Irvine, CA 92617
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
This meeting is closed in its entirety.
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

John Doull
Kim Boekelheide
Barbara Farishian
Robert Isaacson
Judith Klotz
Jayanth Kumar
Hardy Limeback
Charles Poole (by conference call on Feb. 6)
Edward Puzas
Nu-may Ruby Reed
Kathleen Thiessen
Thomas Webster

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

1. Draft report
2. Preliminary findings and recommendations

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

The chemistry of fluorosilicate hydrolysis in municipal water supplies. A
review of the literature and a summary of the University of Michigan studies.
Prepared by Michael D. Morris, Professor of Chemistry, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI.

Fluoride Exposure and Osteosarcoma. Chester Douglass, Principal Investigator,
Harvard University. Summary of ongoing study.

Letter from Michael Connett to Susan Martel (National Research Council), dated
January 29, 2004, regarding toxicologic risk of fluoride in drinking water.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
February 11, 2004
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

Keck Center
500 5th St NW, Washington, DC 20001
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
Agenda
Open to the Public
8:30 a.m. - 12;30 p.m.


8:30
Welcome, Introductions, Purpose of Public Session
John Doull, Chair

8:40
Overview of EPA?s Policies and Methods for Establishing MCLGs, MCLs, and SMCLs
Edward Ohanian, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

9:20
Fluoride Exposure and Dental Fluorosis in Children
Steven Levy, University of Iowa

10:00
Metabolism and Uptake of Fluoride and Implications for Toxicity
Gary Whitford, Medical College of Georgia

10:50
Break

11:00
Effects of Fluoride on Bone
Charles Turner, Indiana University School of Medicine

11:50
Open Microphone

12:20
Adjourn
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

John Doull
Kim Boekelheide
Barbara Farishian
Robert Isaacson
Judith Klotz
Jayanth Kumar
Hardy Limeback
Charles Poole
Edward Puzas
Nu-may Ruby Reed
Kathleen Thiessen
Thomas Webster

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

Standard NRC discussion of policies, procedures, conflict of interest, and bias

Report outline and writing assignments

Preliminary review of data

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

FLU-58: Public Agenda

FLU-59: Subcommittee Roster

FLU-60: Document
Levy, S.M., J.J. Warren, and B. Broffitt. In press. Patterns of Fluoride
Intake from 36 to 72 Months. J Pub Health Dent.

FLU-61: Document
Marshall, T.A., S.M. Levy, B. Broffitt, J.J. Warren, J.M. Eichenberger-Gilmore,
T.L. Burns, and P.J. Stumbo. 2003. Dental Caries and Beverage Consumption in
Young Children. Pediatrics. 112(3):e184-e191.

FLU-62: Document
Levy, S.M., J.J. Warren, B. Broffitt, S.L. Hillis, and M.J. Kanellis. 2003.
Fluoride, Beverages and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition. Caries Res.
37:157-165.

FLU-63: Document
Levy, S.M., S.L. Hillis, B.A. Broffitt, A.K.M. Mahbubal Islam, J.S. Wefel, and
M.J. Kanellis. 2002. Primary Tooth Fluorosis and Fluoride Intake During the
First Year of Life. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 30:286-295.

FLU-64: Document
Levy, S.M., J.J. Warren, C.S. Davis, L. Kirchner, M.J. Kanellis, and J.S.
Wefel. 2001. Patterns of Fluoride Intake from Birth to 36 Months. J Public
Health Dent. 61(2):70-77.

FLU-65: Document
Whitford, G.M. 1996. The Metabolism and Toxicity of Fluoride. Monographs in
Oral Science, Vol. 16. Basel: Karger. 153 pp.

FLU-66: Document
Rao, H.V., R.P. Beliles, G.M. Whitford, and C.H. Turner. 1995. A
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Fluoride Uptake by Bone. Reg
Toxicol Pharmacol. 22:30-42.

FLU-67: Document
Turner, C.H., M.P. Akhter, and R.P. Heaney. 1992. The Effects of Fluoridated
Water on Bone Strength. J Orthopaedic Res. 10(4):581-587.

FLU-68: Document
Turner, C.H., I. Owan, E.J. Brizendine, W. Zhang, M.E. Wilson, and A.J.
Dunipace. 1996. High Fluoride Intakes Cause Osteomalacia and Diminished Bone
Strength in Rats with Renal Deficiency. Bone. 19(6):595-601.

FLU-69: Document
Turner, C.H., K. Hasegawa, W. Zhang, M. Wilson, Y. Li, and A.J. Dunipace.
1995. Fluoride Reduces Bone Strength in Older Rats. J Dent Res.
74(8):1475-1481.

FLU-70: Slide presentation
Ohanian, E. 2003. USEPA Drinking Water Regulations for Fluoride: A Historic
Perspective. Given by Edward Ohanian, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Office of Water.

FLU-71: Slide presentation
Levy, S. 2003. Fluoride Exposure and Dental Fluorosis in Children. Given by
Steven M. Levy, D.D.S., M.P.H., University of Iowa College of Dentistry,
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry.

FLU-72: Slide presentation
Whitford, G. 2003. Metabolism and Toxicity of Fluoride. Given by Gary M.
Whitford, D.M.D., Medical College of Georgia, School of Dentistry, Department
of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology.

FLU-73: Slide presentation
Turner, C. 2003. Effects of Fluoride on Bone. Given by Charles H. Turner,
Ph.D., Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic
Surgery.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
November 13, 2003
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-


Location:

National Academy of Sciences Building
2101 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20418
Event Type :  
-

Registration for Online Attendance :   
NA

Registration for in Person Attendance :   
NA


If you would like to attend the sessions of this event that are open to the public or need more information please contact

Contact Name:  Tamara Dawson
Contact Email:  tdawson@nas.edu
Contact Phone:  202-334-2776

Agenda
AUGUST 12, 2003

10:00
Sign-in

10:10
Welcome, Introductions, Purpose of Public Session
John Doull, Chair

10:20
Background on EPA's MCL and SMCL
Joyce Donohue, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

11:20
Summary of NRC's 1993 Report Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride
Bernard Wagner, Wagner Associates, Inc., former subcommittee chair

12:00
Break

1:00
Fluoride and Dental Health in the United States
William Maas, Director, Division of Oral Health, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention

2:00
A Safe Drinking Water Standard for Fluoride: LOAELs and Protecting the Most
Vulnerable
Paul Connett, St. Lawrence University

2:45
Break

3:00
Open Microphone

4:00
Adjourn
Supporting File(s)
-
Is it a Closed Session Event?
Yes

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Event

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the event:

Provisional members present:
John Doull
Kim Boekelheide
Barbara Farishian
Robert Isaacson
Judith Klotz
Jayanth Kumar
Charles Poole
Edward Puzas
Nu-May Reed
Kathleen Thiessen
Bernard Wagner
Thomas Webster

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions:

1. Standard NRC discussion of policies, procedures, conflict of interest and
bias
2. Committee expertise and balance
3. Interpretation of the statement of task, plan of action and report outline
4. Schedule and location of future committee meetings

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions:

FLU-41: Public Agenda

FLU-42: Subcommittee Roster

FLU-43: Document
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1985. Drinking Water Criteria
Document on Fluoride. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Criteria and
Standards Division, Office of Drinking Water. Washington, DC.

FLU-44: Document
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986. National Primary and
Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40,
Parts 141, 142 and 143. Fed. Regist. 51(63):11396-11412.

FLU-45: Document
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986. National Primary and
Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40,
Part 141. Fed. Regist. 51(93):20164-20175.

FLU-46: Document
CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). 2002. Populations receiving
optimally fluoridated public drinking water?United States, 2000. MMWR,
February 22, 2002. 51(7):144-147.

FLU-47: Document
CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1991. Public health service report on
fluoride benefits and risks. Centers for Disease Control. JAMA 262:1061-1067.

FLU-48: Document
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2001. Recommendations for
using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States.
Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 50(RR-14):1-42.

FLU-49: Article
Connett, P. 2002. The absurdities of water fluoridation. Available at the
website of www.fluoridealert.org.

FLU-50: Statement
Connett, P. 2000. Fluoride: A statement of concern. Waste Not 459.

FLU-51: Power Point Slide presentation
Connett, P. and M. Connett. 2003. A safe drinking water standard for
fluoride: LOAELS and protecting the most vulnerable. Given by Paul Connett,
Ph.D., St. Lawrence University.

FLU-52: Handout
Connett, P. and M. Connett. 2003. A safe drinking water standard for
fluoride: LOAELS and protecting the most vulnerable. Given by Paul Connett,
Ph.D., St. Lawrence University.

FLU-53: Power Point Slide presentation
Donohue, J. 2003. US EPA drinking water regulations for fluoride. Given by
Joyce Donohue, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water.

FLU-54: Power Point Slide presentation
Maas, W.R. 2003. Fluoride and dental health in the Unites States. Given by
William R. Maas, DDS, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division
of Oral Health.

FLU-55: Article
Crosby, N.T. 1969. Equilibria of fluorosilicate solutions with special
reference to the fluoridation of public water supplies. J. Appl. Chem.
19:100-102.

FLU-56: Statement
ADA (American Dental Association). Comments to the subcommittee on fluoride in
drinking water of the national research council. August 12, 2003.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary:
August 20, 2003
Publication(s) resulting from the event:

-

Publications

  • Publications having no URL can be seen at the Public Access Records Office