Date: Aug. 7, 2000
Contacts: Bill Kearney, Media Relations Associate
Shelley Solheim, Media Relations Assistant
(202) 334-2138; e-mail <>

Long-Term Management of DOE 'Legacy' Waste Sites
Presents a Significant Challenge

WASHINGTON -- The government's intended reliance on long-term stewardship to oversee its contaminated nuclear weapons sites is, at this point, problematic, says a new report from the National Academies' National Research Council. Details of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) stewardship plans have yet to be specified, adequate funding has not been assured, and there is no convincing evidence that institutional controls -- such as surveillance of radioactive and other hazardous wastes left at sites, security fences, and deeds restricting land use -- will prove reliable over the long run.

"Many weaknesses in institutional controls and other stewardship activities arise from institutional fallabilities," said Thomas Leschine, associate professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, and chair of the committee that wrote the report. "Understanding this and developing a highly reliable organizational model that anticipates failure while taking advantage of new opportunities for further remediation and isolation of contaminants remains a significant challenge for DOE."

"Moreover," added committee vice chair Mary English, research leader at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, "DOE must undertake long-term institutional management of residually contaminated sites with the expectation that plans developed today will need to be periodically revisited."

Nearly 150 sites around the country are contaminated, a nagging reminder of the nuclear arms race. DOE has concluded that even after planned remediation activities are completed -- or found to be infeasible -- at these so-called "legacy" waste sites, 109 of them will never be clean enough for unrestricted use. The department recently established the Office of Long-Term Stewardship to protect indefinitely the people and environment surrounding these sites -- which are located in 27 states, Puerto Rico, and territorial islands in the Pacific.

DOE should begin immediately to plan for a broader institutional management framework that equally balances contaminant reduction, physical isolation of waste, and custodial activities such as surveillance of waste migration, changes in the landscape, and human activity around the site, the committee said. Currently, DOE defines stewardship as something that begins after "closure" of a site when remediation is deemed finished, but ideally it should be considered while remediation strategies are still being formulated. The Office of Long-Term Stewardship has just begun its planning, though it is required by law to report to Congress on DOE's responsibilities by October 1.

Because the long-term behavior of contaminants in the environment is unpredictable and physical barriers may break down at some point, the committee urged DOE to develop its stewardship plans under the assumption that contaminant isolation eventually will fail. When institutional controls and other stewardship activities are required because of the fallibility of isolation, a precautionary approach should be adopted in which contaminant reduction is emphasized to address risks to human health and the environment.

No "one size fits all" formula exists for successful institutional management and decisions are likely to be made under conditions of considerable uncertainty, the reports notes. The best long-term management strategy overall appears to be one which avoids foreclosing future options, takes contingencies into account, and considers seriously the prospects of failure. It needs to be forward-looking because today's scientific knowledge and institutional capabilities do not provide much confidence that containment of sites with residual risks will function as expected indefinitely.

The long-term institutional management approach outlined in the report also calls for periodic re-evaluation of plans and research and development of new remediation technologies. Scientific breakthroughs outside DOE need to be monitored as well for their relevance to further reducing risks associated with residual contaminants. Equal attention should be given to social research that can be applied to the institutional and organizational aspects of this approach.

DOE officials view the long-term stewardship efforts that they have proposed so far -- which are likely to rely heavily on surveillance, maintenance, and record keeping -- as relatively inexpensive compared with the cost for initial remediation. But real costs cannot be estimated with any confidence since failures are likely to occur, the committee said. The goal of long-term institutional management should be to anticipate such failures and minimize the costs and risks associated with them.

Ongoing surveillance and environmental monitoring need to go beyond the boundaries of a site, the committee emphasized. For example, DOE has begun annual checking of building permit requests around the Oak Ridge Reservation site in Tennessee after a nearby golf course attempted to use water from a contaminated aquifer. In addition, proposed land-use changes inside a site, perhaps for the "reindustrialization" of the former facility for a new manufacturing purpose, need to be carefully considered.

DOE should frankly acknowledge gaps in its technical capabilities and organizational deficiencies when explaining long-term institutional management plans to the public, the committee said. In addition, the scientific basis for decisions should be clear, and the public should be actively engaged in the development of stewardship plans.

The report was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The National Research Council is the principal operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering. It is a private, nonprofit institution that provides scientific and technical advice under a congressional charter. A committee roster follows.

Read the full text of Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites for free on the Web, as well as more than 1,800 other publications from the National Academies. Printed copies are available for purchase from the National Academy Press Web site or at the mailing address in the letterhead; tel. (202) 334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a pre-publication copy from the Office of News and Public Information at the letterhead address (contacts listed above).

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources
Board on Radioactive Waste Management

Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes

Thomas M. Leschine (chair)
Associate Professor
School of Marine Affairs
College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences
University of Washington

Mary R. English (vice chair)
Research Leader
Energy, Environment, and Resources Center
University of Tennessee

Denise Bierley
Environmental Consultant
St. Helens, Ore.

Gregory R. Choppin
R.O. Lawton Distinguished Professor of Chemistry
Department of Chemistry
Florida State University

James H. Clarke
Professor of the Practice of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, Tenn.

Allen G. Croff
Associate Director
Chemical Technology Division
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge, Tenn.

William R. Freudenburg
Professor of Rural Sociology and Environmental Studies
Department of Rural Sociology
University of Wisconsin

Donald R. Gibson Jr.
Program Manager
TRW Inc.
Colorado Springs, Colo.

Naomi H. Harley
Research Professor of Environmental Medicine
Department of Environmental Medicine
New York University School of Medicine
New York City

James H. Johnson Jr.
Professor of Civil Engineering and Dean
College of Engineering, Architecture, and Computer Sciences
Howard University
Washington, D.C.

Shlomo P. Neuman1
Regents' Professor of Hydrology and Water Resources
Department of Hydrology and Water Resources
University of Arizona

W. Hugh O'Riordan
Givens, Pursley & Huntley
Boise, Idaho

Edwin W. Roedder2
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Harvard University
Cambridge, Mass.

Benjamin Ross
Disposal Safety Inc.
Washington, D.C.

Raymond G. Wymer
Chemical Technology Division
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired)
Oak Ridge, Tenn.


Robert Andrews
Study Director

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering
2 Member, National Academy of Sciences