Date: Oct. 16, 1997
Contacts: Barbara J. Rice, Deputy Director
Sean McLaughlin, Media Relations Assistant
(202) 334-2138; Internet <>

Publication Announcement

Nation Leads the World in Math Research,
But Trends Cast Shadow on Future

To maintain U.S. leadership in science and technology, policy-makers need reliable information on the status of research fields when making their decisions regarding funding levels. A study that compared accomplishments in U.S. mathematics research with other countries has concluded that this field is thriving and pre-eminent in the world, but concerns about the future are emerging.

The study was conducted by a panel of prominent U.S. and foreign mathematics researchers and users of that research in industry and related fields. It operated under the auspices of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy -- a joint committee of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine.

The nation's lead in mathematical research is demonstrated by the numerous achievements of U.S. mathematicians in the field and in scientific, engineering, medical, and industrial applications, the panel found. For example, panel members looked systematically on a worldwide basis at subfields to identify individuals whose research is at the cutting edge and driving the subfield. In almost all cases, a majority of these researchers were from the United States.

The panel also identified the key factors that allowed the United States to gain and maintain this position: the strength and contributions of the research universities, the funding of mathematical research by the U.S. government, and the nation's ability in the last 60 years to attract foreign talent.

But this position of eminence is vulnerable, the panel concluded. Because of improving conditions for mathematicians abroad and restrictive U.S. regulations, the United States might not be able to continue to rely on foreign talent. In addition, widespread financial pressures have forced research universities to reduce the size of their graduate programs and the number of permanent faculty. Enrollment of full-time Ph.D. students in mathematics has steadily decreased since reaching a high in 1992. Since 1989 the number of academic positions available to new Ph.D.s has fallen by one-third, and future government funding for academic mathematics is uncertain. However, employment of mathematicians by industry is increasing.

This report is the first in a series of experimental studies to examine U.S. research in a number of fields. Similar analyses are under way for the fields of materials science and engineering, and immunology. The panels were asked to present findings and conclusions, but not make recommendations. The study series grew from the concept that policy decisions would be better informed by comparative international assessments, so that the United States could position itself among the world leaders in all major fields of science by quickly applying and capitalizing on scientific advances wherever they occur. Moreover, clear leadership would need to be maintained in fields that are tied to national objectives, capture the imagination of society, or that have multiplicative effects on other scientific advances. This approach was first recommended in the committee's 1993 report Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era and was reiterated in the 1995 Academy report Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology.

Copies of International Benchmarking of U.S. Mathematics Research  are available at or by calling 202-334-3313  or 1-800-624-6242.  Reporters may obtain copies from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above).

Development of this report was supported by the National Research Council and the Sloan Foundation. The National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine are private, non-profit institutions that provide science, technology, and health policy advice under a congressional charter. A committee roster follows.


Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy
Phillip A. Griffiths (1) (committee chair)
Institute for Advanced Study
Princeton, N.J.

Bruce M. Alberts(1)(ex officio)
President, National Academy of Sciences
Washington, D.C.

William F. Brinkman(1)
Vice President, Physical Sciences Research
AT&T Bell Laboratories
Lucent Technologies
Murray Hill, N.J.

Peter Diamond (1)
Professor of Economics
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Gerald P. Dinneen (3)
Vice President, Science and Technology
Honeywell Inc. (retired)
Edina, Minn.

Mildred S. Dresselhaus (1,3)
Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

James J. Duderstadt (3)
President Emeritus and University Professor of Science and Engineering
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Marye Anne Fox(1)
Vice President for Research
University of Texas, Austin

Ralph E. Gomory(1,3)
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
New York City

Ruby P. Hearn(2)
Vice President
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Princeton, N.J.

Marian E. Koshland(1)
Professor of Immunology, Department of
Molecular and Cell Biology
University of California, Berkeley

Phillip W. Majerus(1,2)
Professor of Medicine, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biophysics; and
Director, Division of Hematology-Oncology
Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis

Kenneth I. Shine(2) (ex officio)
President, Institute of Medicine
Washington, D.C.

Morris Tanenbaum(3)
Vice President, National Academy of Engineering
Washington, D.C.

William Julius Wilson(1)
Malcolm Wiener Professor of Social Policy
John F. Kennedy School of Government
Harvard University
Cambridge, Mass.

William A. Wulf (3) (ex officio)
President, National Academy of Engineering
Washington, D.C.

International Benchmarking of U.S. Research Fields:
Mathematics Panel

Peter D. Lax(1)(panel chair)
Professor of Mathematics and
Director, Courant Laboratory
New York University, New York City

Michael F. Atiyah(4)
Master, Trinity College
Cambridge, England

Spencer J. Bloch (1)
Professor, Department of Mathematics
University of Chicago

Joseph B. Keller(1)
Professor, Departments of Mathematics and
Mechanical Engineering
Stanford University
Palo Alto, Calif.

Jacques-Louis Lions (4)
President, French Academy of Sciences and
Professor, College de France

Yuri I. Manin
Director, Max Planck Institute für Mathematik
Bonn, Germany

Rudolph A. Marcus (1)
A.A. Noyes Professor of Chemistry
California Institute of Technology

Gary C. McDonald
Head, Operations Research Department
GM Research and Development Center
Warren, Mich.

Cathleen S. Morawetz (1)
Professor Emeritus
Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences
New York University
New York City

Peter Sarnak
Chair, Department of Mathematics
Princeton University
Princeton, N.J.

I.M. Singer(1)
Institute Professor
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Margaret H. Wright(3)
Distinguished Member of Technical Staff
Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies
Murray Hill, N.J.


Deborah Stine, Study Director(1) Member, National Academy of Sciences
(2) Member, Institute of Medicine
(3) Member, National Academy Engineering
(4) Foreign Associate, National Academy of Sciences