Date:  Feb. 3, 2015




White Potatoes Should Be Allowed Under WIC, Says IOM; Program Participants’ Consumption of Vegetables Does Not Meet 2010 Dietary Guidelines


WASHINGTON – The U.S. Department of Agriculture should allow white potatoes as a vegetable eligible for purchase with vouchers issued by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Woman, Infants, and Children (WIC), says a new report from the Institute of Medicine.  If relevant changes occur in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the recommendation should be re-evaluated. 


A program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service, WIC provides nutrition education and health and social service referrals for low-income infants, children up to age five, and women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum.  It also provides a $10 cash value voucher per month to women and an $8 voucher per month to children, redeemable for fruits and vegetables, so they can obtain specific nutrients in their diets.  Foods provided through WIC must align with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which are revised every five years. 


From the 2005 Dietary Guidelines to those issued in 2010, the recommended consumption of starchy vegetables increased from 2.5 cups to 3.5 cups per week for children and from 3 cups to 5 cups per week for women.  On average, children and women are consuming about 64 percent and 56 percent, respectively, of current recommended amounts of starchy vegetables.  The committee that wrote the IOM report also found that for low-income children, consumption of calcium, potassium, and fiber falls short when compared to national benchmarks for recommended intakes.  For low-income women, intakes of seven nutrients -- vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, potassium, iron, folate and dietary fiber -- are in need of substantial improvement. 


The committee determined that WIC participants' intakes of all vegetable subgroups, including starchy vegetables, could be improved.  Because white potatoes are particularly high in potassium, increased consumption may help reduce shortfalls of potassium in the diets of both children and women.  Additionally, the inclusion of white potatoes would offer WIC participants more ways to meet their preferences -- or at minimum would likely not reduce them -- and might reduce the administrative burden for vendors by reducing voucher restrictions.


The committee was concerned about ensuring effective implementation of its recommendation to promote alignment with the dietary guidelines to consume a variety of vegetables and limit saturated fat and sodium, as well as to ensure the continued availability of other vegetables offered by vendors. 


In 2006, the IOM released the report WIC Food Packages: A Time for Change, which used the 2005 Dietary Guidelines as a basis to conclude that white potatoes should be excluded as an eligible vegetable under WIC.  Because the 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommendations for starchy vegetables increased from the 2005 Guidelines, as described above, participants often do not meet or exceed these intake goals.  Thus, the basis for excluding white potatoes that was used for the 2006 IOM report no longer applies, the committee said.


Additional recommendations by the committee include:


·         USDA and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services should collaborate to achieve expansion of data collection on dietary intakes for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

·         USDA should undertake a separate, comprehensive examination of currently available data to assess the effectiveness of the current cash value vouchers in meeting WIC participants’ food pattern and dietary intake goals as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including use of white potatoes in the context of the cultural diversity of WIC participants.

·         USDA should allocate resources to support studies related to participant satisfaction with the cash value vouchers; how participants decide how much of the vouchers to spend; how participants decide to apportion this benefit among the vegetables and fruits, between vegetables and fruits, and between the vouchers and other food purchases; how vendors have changed the WIC-eligible vegetables and fruits they stock because of the implementation of the vouchers; and how the vouchers and their implementation have affected vendors.


The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.  Established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine provides independent, objective, evidence-based advice to policymakers, health professionals, the private sector, and the public.  The National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council make up the National Academies.  A committee roster follows.



Jennifer Walsh, Senior Media Relations Officer

Chelsea Dickson, Media Relations Associate

Office of News and Public Information

202-334-2138; e-mail

Twitter: @NAS_news and @NASciences


Pre-publication copies of Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher are available from the National Academies Press on the Internet at or by calling 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above).

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Food and Nutrition Board


Committee to Review WIC Food Packages


Kathleen M. Rasmussen (chair)

Professor of Nutrition

Division of Nutritional Sciences

Cornell University

Ithaca, N.Y.


Gail G. Harrison2


Center for Health Sciences

UCLA School of Public Health

University of California, Los Angeles

Los Angeles


Susan S. Baker


Department of Pediatrics, and


Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Center

Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo

Buffalo, N.Y.


Marianne P. Bitler


Department of Economics

University of California, Irvine



Patsy M. Brannon


Division of Nutritional Sciences

Cornell University

Ithaca, N.Y.


Alicia Carriquiry

Distinguished Professor

Department of Statistics

Iowa State University



David E. Davis

Department of Economics

South Dakota State University



Mary Kay Fox

Senior Fellow

Mathematica Policy Research Inc.

Cambridge, Mass.


Tamera J. Hatfield

Assistant Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine

University of California, Irvine



Helen H. Jensen

Professor of Economics, and


Food and Nutrition Policy Division of the Center for Agricultural & Rural Development (CARD)

Iowa State University



Rachel K. Johnson

Robert L. Bickford, Jr. Green and Gold Professor of Nutrition, and

Professor of Medicine

University of Vermont



Angela M. Odoms-Young

Assistant Professor

University of Illinois at Chicago



A. Catharine Ross1

Professor of Nutrition, and

Dorothy Foehr Huck Chair

Department of Nutritional Sciences

Pennsylvania State University

University Park


Charlene Russell-Tucker

Chief Operating Officer

Connecticut Department of Education



Shannon E. Whaley

Director of Research and Evaluation

Public Health Foundation Enterprises WIC Program

Irwindale, Calif.




Marie Latulippe

Study Director




1Member, National Academy of Sciences

2Member, Institute of Medicine