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Date: March 5, 2008

Contacts:    Sara Frueh, Media Relations Officer

Luwam Yeibio, Media Relations Assistant

Office of News and Public Information

202-334-2138; e-mail <>



Report Advises Against New National Database of Ballistic Images


 WASHINGTON — A national database containing images of ballistic markings from all new and imported guns sold in the U.S. should not be created at this time, says a new report from the National Research Council.  Such a database has been proposed to help investigators link ballistics evidence -- cartridge cases or bullets found at crime scenes -- to a firearm and the location where it was originally sold.  But given the practical limitations of current technology for generating and comparing images of ballistic markings, searches of such an extensive database would likely produce too many candidate "matches" to be helpful, the report says. 


The report notes that the fundamental assumption underlying forensic firearms identification – that every gun leaves microscopic marks on bullets and cartridge cases that are unique to that weapon and remain the same over repeated firings – has not yet been fully demonstrated scientifically.  More research would be needed to prove that firearms identification rests on firmer scientific footing, said the committee that wrote the report. 


Nevertheless, current ballistic imaging technology can be useful in generating leads for law enforcement investigation, said the committee.  Its report recommends ways to improve the usefulness of an existing ballistic image database – limited to ballistics evidence associated with crimes – that is administered by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) and used by more than 200 state and local law enforcement agencies.  It also recommends further research on "microstamping," a technique that imprints unique marks on guns or ammunition.  This promising method could be an alternate way to attain the same basic goal as the proposed database.


National Database Would Be of Limited Usefulness


"Toolmarks" are created on cartridge cases and bullets when a gun is fired -- for example, when a bullet scrapes against grooves on the inside of the gun barrel, or when high gas pressure forces the walls of a cartridge case against the gun's firing chamber.  These toolmarks have long been used to help solve crimes -- for example, a firearms examiner might compare a crime-scene bullet to one test-fired from a suspect's gun to determine whether the marks match.  Since the 1980s, computerized imaging has allowed law enforcement agencies to input toolmark images in databases of crime-related ballistic evidence and search for images of bullets or cases with similar marks. 


The National Institute of Justice of the U.S. Department of Justice asked the National Research Council to assess the feasibility of a national database that would contain images of toolmarks from all new and imported guns; about 4.5 million new guns are sold in the U.S. each year, including about 2 million handguns.  With such a system, when a gun is sold, images of cartridge cases from a firing of that gun would be entered into the database, possibly with information on its original purchaser.  Investigators around the country who collect ballistic evidence at crime scenes could search the database for possible matches.  Maryland and New York already operate such databases for guns sold or manufactured in those states.


A number of problems would hinder the usefulness and accuracy of a national database, the report says.  Ballistic images from millions of guns could be entered each year, and many of the images would depict toolmarks that are very similar in their gross characteristics.  Research suggests that current technology for collecting and comparing images may not reliably distinguish very fine differences in large volumes of similar images, the report says.  Searches would likely turn up too many possible "matches" to be useful.  Also, the type of ammunition actually used in a crime could differ from the type used when the gun was originally test-fired – a difference that could lead to significant error in suggesting possible matches.  


The report does recommend 15 improvements to the ATF's National Integrated Ballistic Information Network (NIBIN), an existing database that contains ballistic images from crime scenes and suspects' weapons.  Seven recommendations focus on improving the operation of the NIBIN program; for example, the program should consider protocols for entering multiple images from the same gun – ideally involving multiple ammunition types – rather than relying on a single "best" case.  The report also recommends eight ways to improve the database's technical platform -- for instance, by simplifying routines for conducting searches across multiple regions of the country.  The committee examined the possibility of using three-dimensional surface measurement techniques rather than two-dimensional photographic images, but suggests the need for further research and testing before such a change is made.  


Claims of Certainty About 'Matches' Without Firm Grounding


The report does not assess the admissibility of firearm toolmark evidence in legal proceedings, since making such a determination was not part of the committee's charge.  However, it cautions that the statement commonly made by firearms examiners that "matches" of ballistic evidence identify a particular source gun "to the exclusion of all other firearms" should be avoided.  There is currently no statistical justification for such a statement, and it is inconsistent with the element of subjectivity inherent in any firearms examiner's assessment of a match.


If firearms identification is to rest on firmer scientific ground, more research would need to assess the fundamental assumption that toolmarks are unique and remain recognizable over time, despite repeated firings.  Such research should include a program of experiments covering a full range of factors that may degrade a gun's toolmarks, as well as factors that might cause different guns to generate similar toolmarks.  Intensive work is also needed on the underlying physics, engineering, and metallurgy of firearms, in order to better understand the mechanisms that form toolmarks as a weapon is fired.


Microstamping Should Be Studied


The report also recommends more research on a promising alternative approach to providing links between crime-scene evidence and the original weapon.  "Microstamping" etches or engraves unique markings -- such as an alphanumeric code -- on gun parts, which in turn generate unique marks on spent cartridge cases; microstamped marks could also be applied to individual pieces of ammunition.  These marks could be rapidly examined at crime scenes using equipment as simple as a magnifying glass.  However, more in-depth studies are needed on the durability of microstamped marks under various firing conditions and their susceptibility to tampering, as well as on their cost impact for manufacturers and consumers.  California recently passed a law to require microstamping on internal parts of new semiautomatic pistols sold in the state by 2010.


The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice's National Institute of Justice.  The National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council make up the National Academies.  They are private, nonprofit institutions that provide science, technology, and health policy advice under a congressional charter.  The Research Council is the principal operating agency of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering.  A committee roster follows.


Copies of Ballistic Imaging are available from the National Academies Press; tel. 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242 or on the Internet at  Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above). 




Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Committee on Law and Justice and Committee on National Statistics


Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Materials Advisory Board


Committee on Assessing the Feasibility, Accuracy, and Technical Capability

of a National Ballistics Database

John E. Rolph (chair)
Professor of Statistics
Marshall School of Business

University of Southern California
Los Angeles


Eugene S. Meieran 1 (vice chair)
Senior Fellow and Director of Manufacturing
Strategic Support
Intel Corp.
Chandler, Ariz.


Alfred Blumstein 1
J. Erik Jonsson Professor of Urban Systems and Operations Research
H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management
Carnegie Mellon University


Alicia Carriquiry
Department of Statistics
Iowa State University


Scott Chumbley
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Iowa State University


Philip J. Cook 2
ITT/Terry Sanford Distinguished Professor of Economics and Sociology
Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy
Duke University
Durham, N.C.


Marc De Graef
Department of Materials Science and Engineering 
Carnegie Mellon University


David L. Donoho 3
Professor of Statistics, and
Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor of Humanities and Science 
Stanford University
Stanford, Calif.


William F. Eddy
John C. Warner Professor of Statistics
Carnegie Mellon University

George T. Gray III
Materials Science Division
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos, N.M.


Eric Grimson
Bernard Gordon Professor of Medical Engineering and Head
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Daniel P. Huttenlocher
John P. and Rilla Neafsay Professor of Computing, Information Science, and Business
Department of Computer Science, and
Stephen H. Weiss Fellow
Cornell University
Ithaca, N.Y.


Michael M. Meyer
Google Inc.


Vijay Nair
Donald A. Darling Professor and Chair
Department of Statistics, and
Professor of Industrial and Operations Engineering
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor


Angelo M. Ninivaggi Jr.
Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary
Plexus Corp.
Neenah, Wis.


David W. Pisenti
Law Enforcement Consultant

Fredericksburg, Va.


Daryl Pregibon
Research Scientist
Google Inc.
New York City

Herman M. Reininga
Senior Vice President of Operations
Rockwell Collins (retired)
Cedar Rapids, Iowa


James K. Stewart
Senior Fellow 
The CNA Corp.
Alexandria, Va.


Michael R. Stonebraker 1
Professor of Computer Science
Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Julia R. Weertman 1
Walter P. Murphy Professor Emerita of Engineering
Northwestern University
Evanston, Ill.





Carol Petrie

Study Director

Director, Committee on Law and Justice


Daniel Cork

Senior Program Officer

Committee on National Statistics


Gary Fischman

Director, National Materials Advisory Board



Member, National Academy of Engineering

Member, Institute of Medicine

Member, National Academy of Sciences