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News from the National Academies
Date: Dec. 14, 2005
Contacts: Bill Kearney, Director of Media Relations
Michelle Strikowsky, Media Relations Assistant
Office of News and Public Information
202-334-2138; e-mail <news@nas.edu>

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Icebreaking Capability Required at Both Poles;
Arctic Melting Likely to Increase Demands on Aging Fleet

WASHINGTON -- The age and condition of the U.S. Coast Guard's two polar icebreakers are jeopardizing national security and scientific research in the Arctic, according to an interim report from the National Academies' National Research Council. The United States should maintain year-round icebreaking capability in the Arctic to support defense, search-and-rescue, and research activities, as well as economic interests that are expanding there because shrinking ice is allowing greater access to natural resources and new shipping routes, said the committee that wrote the congressionally mandated report. Also, at least one heavy icebreaker should be under U.S. control to clear a channel in Antarctica so that supplies can be brought to American research stations there, including one at the South Pole.

The Coast Guard's icebreaking fleet includes two old, polar-class heavy icebreakers -- ships capable of breaking through ice 6 feet thick at a speed of 3 knots -- named the Polar Sea and the Polar Star, as well as a newer ship, the Healy, which was designed for both clearing ice and conducting research. The Healy, which is primarily dedicated to supporting Arctic science, is not classified as a heavy icebreaker but has performed heavy icebreaking duties.

Because of a shortfall in funding for U.S. polar icebreaking activities, long-term maintenance on the Polar Sea and Polar Star -- both of which have been in operation for nearly three decades -- has been deferred over the past several years. These ships are inefficient to operate and technologically outdated. The committee agreed with plans by USCG and the National Science Foundation to restore the Polar Sea to "interim operational capability" by next fall, but it emphasized that enough maintenance must be performed to ensure that the ship remains "mission capable" for the next four to eight years -- the minimum amount of time it will take to build a new ship or significantly extend the service life of an existing one. Interim restoration of ships is not an appropriate long-term solution, however, the committee said.

Having an icebreaker that can deal with the rigorous ice conditions in Antarctica's McMurdo Sound is critical in the short term, the committee said. The Healy has supported the McMurdo "break-in," but when it is diverted to the Antarctic, U.S. icebreaking presence in the Arctic is greatly reduced, jeopardizing research there.

NSF also has contracted with a private company to hire a Russian icebreaker to clear the McMurdo channel, but the committee said that contracting ships on a year-by-year basis is not a dependable long-term solution. Although signing a longer contract with an operator other than the Coast Guard may be a viable option, doing so will have long-term implications for U.S. control of icebreaking capabilities.

The committee also said that budgetary authority for the polar icebreakers, which was recently assigned to NSF, should be returned to the Coast Guard, at least for the short term. Although a majority of icebreaker operations support research, USCG still needs to support its other missions, which are likely to increase alongside the dramatic environmental changes taking place in the Arctic, the committee noted. It also questioned the soundness of spreading management decisions across two agencies and making NSF fiscally responsible for missions outside its core area of expertise. USCG should have the operational and maintenance budget necessary to fulfill its required icebreaking services, while NSF should revert to being a paying user of those services to support its research missions, the committee concluded.

The committee's final report, expected to be released next summer, will examine the type and number of icebreaking ships that the United States requires in the long term. The study is sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard. The National Research Council is the principal operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. It is a private, nonprofit institution that provides science and technology advice under a congressional charter. A committee roster follows.

Copies of Polar Icebreaker Roles and U.S. Future Needs: A Preliminary Assessment are available from the National Academies Press; tel. 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242 or on the Internet at http://www.nap.edu. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above).

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[ This news release and report are available at http://national-academies.org ]


NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Division on Earth and Life Studies
Polar Research Board
and
TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD
Marine Board

Committee on Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs


Anita K. Jones1 (chair)
Lawrence R. Quarles Professor of Engineering and Applied Science
School of Engineering and Applied Science
University of Virginia
Charlottesville

Albert J. Baciocco Jr.
Vice Admiral
U.S. Navy (retired), and
Independent Consultant
Baciocco Group Inc.
Mt. Pleasant, S.C.

Julie Brigham-Grette
Professor
Department of Geosciences
University of Massachusetts
Amherst

Rita R. Colwell2
Chair
Canon U.S. Life Sciences Inc., and
Distinguished University Professor
Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
University of Maryland
College Park

Hajo Eicken
Associate Professor
Geophysical Institute and Department of Geology and Geophysics
University of Alaska
Fairbanks

Jeffrey M. Garrett
Commander, 13th Coast Guard District
U.S. Coast Guard (retired)
Mercer Island, Wash.

Jacqueline M. Grebmeier
Research Professor and Project Director
Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecology Group
University of Tennessee
Knoxville

Mahlon C. Kennicutt II
Team Leader
Sustainable Coastal Margins Program, and
Director of Sustainable Development
Office of the Vice President for Research
Texas A&M University
College Station

Ronald K. Kiss
President Emeritus
Webb Institute
Glen Cove, N.Y.

Douglas R. MacAyeal
Professor
Department of Geophysical Sciences
University of Chicago
Chicago

Robert C. North
Rear Admiral
U.S. Coast Guard (retired), and
President
North Star Maritime Inc.
Queenstown, Md.

Raymond J. Pierce
Former Captain, and
Executive Director of Departmental Renewal
Canadian Coast Guard
Ontario

Steven T. Scalzo
Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer
Foss Maritime Co.
Seattle

David G. St. Amand
President
Navigistics Consulting
Boxborough, Mass.

James H. Swift
Research Oceanographer and Academic Administrator
Physical Oceanography Research Division
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
La Jolla, Calif.


RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF

Maria E. Uhle
Study Director

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering
2 Member, National Academy of Sciences