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Date: April 2, 2003
Contacts: Bill Kearney, Media Relations Officer
Chris Dobbins, Media Relations Assistant
Office of News and Public Information
(202) 334-2138; e-mail <>


Publication Announcement

Stronger Links Needed Between Everglades
Restoration and Ecological-Monitoring Plans

A multibillion-dollar effort to restore the Everglades to a more natural state is currently under way in Florida. By capturing and storing excess water for later use during dry periods, planners hope to be able to maintain historical water levels, which they expect will revive many plant and animal species. To determine whether the Everglades are making an ecological comeback, a monitoring and assessment plan is being established by managers of the restoration effort to look for signs of recovery, such as new tree islands, more birds, greater seagrass coverage, and larger catches of shrimp.

The monitoring and assessment plan is grounded in current scientific theory and the principles of adaptive management, which bases decision-making on the ongoing collection and analysis of scientific evidence, says a new report from the National Academies' National Research Council. However, steps need to be taken to ensure that "feedback" channels are in place so information from those who are monitoring the ecology of the Everglades is readily available to those implementing the overall restoration effort. Establishing these formal links will ensure that decisions are based on the most up-to-date scientific information. In addition, the plan needs to place greater consideration on how population growth and changes in land use will affect the restoration effort and vice versa.

Some ecosystem-wide indicators are needed to complement the more than 100 individual hydrologic and ecological performance measures identified so far, the report says. For example, digital aerial and satellite photos should be used to assess changes in land cover and land use, and native and total species diversity should be monitored as well. Likewise, measurements of nutrient runoff and the amount of organic material in soil are good indicators of how well an ecosystem is functioning. The plan also needs to consider how rising sea levels and severe weather associated with global climate change will affect the restoration effort.

Experimental controls should be incorporated into the plan wherever possible, the report adds. Currently the plan relies on what is known as a passive adaptive management approach, in which each step in the restoration is viewed as an experiment, followed by monitoring to evaluate the effectiveness of the step just taken. But because this process is done without sound scientific controls -- such as comparing the area being restored to an unaffected area -- it cannot be used to infer cause and effect. It is therefore impossible to determine if ecological changes are the result of the restoration effort or of other human or natural forces, the report says.

Passive adaptive management may be the only feasible approach in the Everglades given the size and time scale of the restoration effort, but it should be augmented by active adaptive management in which controlled experiments are used to draw conclusions and test alternative policies, the report says. Managers of the restoration also should seek guidance from experts in sampling design and the analysis of environmental data.

Adaptive management will be most effective for those components of the restoration where there is clear foreknowledge of the kind of scientific data that must be collected to inform management and design decisions, the report notes. The plan's authors therefore should evaluate which of the 68 major components of the Everglades restoration would benefit the most from science and monitoring efforts, and use that evaluation to focus monitoring and assessment activities in regions where the results can have the greatest impact.

Besides being a key component in the adaptive management process, parts of the monitoring and assessment plan should serve as a report card for the public, while other parts should aid government agencies in determining whether the restoration effort complies with environmental regulations, the report says. And although the team that wrote the monitoring and assessment plan did an excellent job whittling down a large number of possible ecological performance measures, the list is still too long to be useful. It should be refined to include those measures that most closely reflect progress toward restoration goals, in case funding for monitoring -- which currently appears secure and ample -- is reduced in the future.

The report was sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Interior. The National Research Council is the principal operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. It is a private, nonprofit institution that provides science and technology advice under a congressional charter. A committee roster follows.

Copies of Adaptive Monitoring and Assessment for the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan will be available later this spring from the National Academies Press; tel. (202) 334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242 or order on the Internet at Reporters may obtain a pre-publication copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above).

[ This announcement and the report are available at ]

Division on Earth and Life Studies
Water Science and Technology Board
Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Committee on Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

Jean M. Bahr (chair)
Department of Geology and Geophysics
University of Wisconsin

Scott W. Nixon (vice chair)
Professor of Oceanography
University of Rhode Island

Barbara L. Bedford
Senior Research Associate
Cornell University
Ithaca, N.Y.

Linda K. Blum
Research Associate Professor
Department of Environmental Sciences
University of Virginia

Patrick L. Brezonik
Professor of Environmental Engineering, and
Director, Water Resources Research Center
University of Minnesota
St. Paul

Frank W. Davis
Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, and
Department of Geography
University of California
Santa Barbara

William L. Graf
Education Foundation University Professor, and Professor of Geography
University of South Carolina

Wayne C. Huber
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering
Oregon State University

Stephen R. Humphrey
Dean, College of Natural Resources and Environment, and
Affiliate Professor of Latin American Studies, Wildlife Ecology, and Zoology
University of Florida

Daniel P. Loucks*
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Cornell University
Ithaca, N.Y.

Kenneth W. Potter
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Wisconsin

Kenneth Reckhow
Professor of Water Resources
Duke University
Durham, N.C.

Larry Robinson
Professor, and
Director, Environmental Sciences Institute
Florida A&M University

Henry J. Vaux Jr.
Professor of Resource Economics
University of California, Riverside, and
Associate Vice President
Agricultural and Natural Resource Programs
University of California System

John Vecchioli
U.S. Geological Survey (retired)
Odessa, Fla.

Jeffrey R. Walters
Bailey Professor of Biology
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University


David Policansky
Study Director

* Member, National Academy of Engineering