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Committee Membership Information




Project Title: Ensuring Patient Access to Affordable Drug Therapies

PIN: IOM-HCS-15-01        

Major Unit:
Health and Medicine Division

Sub Unit: Board on Health Care Services

RSO:

Madhavan, Guru

Subject/Focus Area:  Health and Medicine; Policy for Science and Technology


Committee Membership
Date Posted:   11/28/2016


Mr. Norman R. Augustine - (Chair)
Lockheed Martin Corporation [Retired]

Norman Augustine, M.S. (chair) is former chairman and chief executive officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation. He has served as assistant secretary, undersecretary, and subsequently, acting secretary of the U.S. Army. He has been on the faculty of Princeton University, served as chairman and principal officer of the American Red Cross, and as chairman of the Defense Science Board. He has served as a member of the board of directors of ConocoPhillips, Black & Decker, Proctor & Gamble, and Lockheed Martin. He is a regent of the University System of Maryland, and has been a trustee of Princeton University, MIT, and Johns Hopkins University. He has been a member of advisory boards to the Departments of Homeland Security, Energy, Defense, Commerce, Transportation, and Health and Human Services, as well as NASA, Congress and the White House. He has served for 16 years on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology under both Republican and Democratic presidents. He is a member of the American Philosophical Society, Council on Foreign Relations, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has received the U.S. National Medal of Technology, Joint Chiefs of Staff Distinguished Public Service Award, and for five times the Department of Defense’s highest civilian decoration, the Distinguished Service Medal. He holds 34 honorary degrees. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a member and former chairman of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Honorable Jeff Bingaman
U.S. Senate [Retired]

Jeff Bingaman, J.D. is a former U.S. Senator from New Mexico, serving from 1983 to 2013. Bingaman held several committee assignments during his tenure in the U.S. Senate including: the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Committee on Finance, Joint Economic Committee, Committee on Armed Services, and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. On the Senate Energy Committee, he has contributed to every major piece of energy policy legislation in the last two decades. Earlier, Bingaman worked as a private practice attorney. He served as counsel to the New Mexico Constitutional Convention, and was attorney general of New Mexico. Bingaman earned his B.A. from Harvard University and his J.D. from Stanford University.

Dr. Rena Conti
The University of Chicago

Rena Conti, Ph.D. is an associate professor of health policy in the Department of Pediatrics and the Department of Public Health Sciences at the University of Chicago. Her research focuses on financing, regulation and organization of medical care with an emphasis on biopharmaceutical markets. She serves as an ad hoc advisor to the U.S. Senate’s Committee on Finance and U.S. House of Representatives’ Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, and has provided congressional testimony on prescription drug shortages. She is an elected member of the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth. She received her Ph.D. in health policy from Harvard University.

Dr. Kay Dickersin
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Kay Dickersin, Ph.D. is professor of epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where she directs the Center for Clinical Trials and Evidence Synthesis. She is also director of the U.S. Cochrane Center. Kay received her M.A. in cell biology from the University of California Berkeley and her Ph.D. in epidemiology from Johns Hopkins. Her major research interests are related to randomized clinical trials, trials registers, systematic reviews, publication bias, evidence-based healthcare, and patient-centered outcomes research. Her honors include the Ellen Barnett Memorial Award from the Susan B. Komen Foundation, Ingram Olkin Award from the Society for Research Synthesis Methods for lifetime contributions to the field, and being named as Valkhof Chair at the Radboud Univerity Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands. She is an elected member of American Epidemiological Society and a fellow of Society for Clinical Trials. She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Dr. Stacie Dusetzina
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Stacie Dusetzina, Ph.D. is an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy’s Division of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy. She also has a faculty appointment at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health in the Department of Health Policy and Management and is a member of the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, and the Carolina Health Informatics Program. Earlier, she was an assistant professor in the Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology in the UNC School of Medicine. Her primary research focus is on assessing the role of health system policies, drug safety warnings and costs on prescription drug utilization and the subsequent health outcomes for patients, particularly among individuals with cancer or mental illness. Dusetzina received her Ph.D. from the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy and did her postdoctoral work in the Department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School.

Ms. Martha E. Gaines
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Martha Gaines, J.D., L.L.M. is founder and director of the Center for Patient Partnerships, and distinguished clinical professor at the University of Wisconsin Schools of Law, Medicine, Nursing & Pharmacy. Her work focuses on consumer engagement and empowerment in all aspects of health care, including its reform. She serves on the steering committee of National Academy of Medicine's Vital Directions Task Force and the National Cancer Research Advocates of the National Cancer Institute. She also serves on the Board of the American Academy on Communication in Healthcare, and has led patient partnership and related initiatives for diverse organizations including the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, National Patient Advocacy Foundation, Institute of Medicine, and the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation. She has received numerous awards for her work including the National American Cancer Society Lane Adams Quality of Life Award, the Chancellor's Hilldale Award for Excellence in Teaching, the Robert Heidman Award for Excellence in Public Service, and the inaugural Health Law Attorney of the Year Award from the Wisconsin State Bar Association. She earned her A.B. at Vassar College and her J.D. and L.L.M. from the University of Wisconsin Law School. She is a long term survivor of metastatic ovarian cancer.

Dr. Rebekah E. Gee
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals

Rebekah Gee, M.D., M.P.H. is the secretary of the Louisiana Department of Health. She most recently served as the Medicaid medical director for Louisiana and as an associate professor of health policy and management, and obstetrics and gynecology at Louisiana State University. Gee completed a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars program at the University of Pennsylvania and there received a M.S. in health policy research. She obtained an M.P.H. at Columbia University in Health Policy and Management, her M.D. at Cornell University, and trained in obstetrics and gynecology at the Brigham and Women’s and Massachusetts General Hospitals. Gee has advised the public health departments of several states including Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Massachusetts. She is recipient of the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs’ State Leadership in Maternal and Child Health award, and the inaugural Norman F. Gant/American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology Fellowship from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, where she is currently a member of the Board on Health Care Services.

Dr. Victoria G. Hale
Medicines360

Victoria Hale, Ph.D. is founder, former chief executive officer, and chair emeritus of OneWorld Health, the first nonprofit pharmaceutical company in the United States. Under her leadership the organization developed a new cure for visceral leishmaniasis and developed a platform technology to reduce the cost of malaria drugs by more than tenfold. Hale is also founder and former chief executive officer of Medicines360, a second-generation nonprofit pharmaceutical company that developed a hormonal inter-uterine device. She established her expertise in all stages of biopharmaceutical drug development at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and at Genentech, Inc. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of California, San Francisco, where she maintains an adjunct associate professorship in biomedical engineering and therapeutic sciences. Her honors include being named a MacArthur Fellow, receiving the President’s Award of Distinction from the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists and the Economist’s Social and Economic Innovation Award, and being recognized as the Schwab Fellow of the World Economic Forum. She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Dr. Michelle M. Mello
Stanford University School of Medicine

Michelle Mello, J.D., Ph.D. is professor of law at Stanford Law School and professor of health research and policy at Stanford University School of Medicine. Earlier, she was a professor at the Harvard School of Public Health, where she directed the Program in Law and Public Health, as well as a Lab Fellow at Harvard’s Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics. She conducts empirical research into issues at the intersection of law, ethics, and health policy. Mello has also received the Alice S. Hersh New Investigator Award from AcademyHealth, a Greenwall Faculty Scholars Award in Bioethics; and a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Investigator Award in Health Policy Research. She holds a J.D. from the Yale Law School, a Ph.D. in Health Policy and Administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, an M.Phil. from Oxford University, where she was a Marshall Scholar, and a B.A. from Stanford University. She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Eliseo J. Perez-Stable
National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities

Eliseo Pérez-Stable, M.D. is director of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Pérez-Stable has spent more than 30 years leading research on smoking cessation and tobacco control policy in Latino populations in the United States and Latin America. Prior to becoming NIMHD director, Pérez-Stable was professor of medicine and chief of the Division of General Internal Medicine, and director of the Center for Aging in Diverse Communities at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). He was also director of the UCSF Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations, and assistant director for health care disparities at the UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center. He has served as a member of the National Institute on Aging’s Advisory Council. He earned his B.A. in chemistry from the University of Miami and his M.D. from the University of Miami School of Medicine. He completed his primary care internal medicine residency and research fellowship at UCSF. His honors include UCSF’s Kaiser Award for Excellence in Teaching, the Society of General Internal Medicine’s John M. Eisenberg National Award for Career Achievement in Research. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Dr. Charles E. Phelps
University of Rochester

Charles Phelps, Ph.D. is university professor and provost emeritus at the University of Rochester. He previously held appointments in the departments of economics and political science and served as director of the Public Policy Analysis Program and chair of the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine in the School of Medicine and Dentistry. Earlier, Phelps served as a senior staff economist and director of the Program on Regulatory Policies and Institutions at the RAND Corporation. Phelps’s research cuts across the fields of health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, and other related topics, and is author of Health Economics (now in its sixth edition). He has testified before U.S. congressional committees on health policy and intellectual property issues. He is a fellow of the National Bureau of Economic Research and serves on the board of directors of the Health Care Cost Institute. He has served as the chair of the board of directors of VirtualScopics, Inc., and as a consultant to Gilead Sciences, Inc., CardioDx, and Kaiser Permanente of Northern California. He received his B.A. in mathematics from Pomona College, an M.B.A. in hospital administration, and Ph.D. in business economics from the University of Chicago. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Dr. Michael Rosenblatt
Flagship Ventures

Michael Rosenblatt, M.D. is the chief medical officer of Flagship Ventures. Recently, he served as executive vice president and chief medical officer at Merck & Co. Previously, he served as dean of Tufts University School of Medicine. Prior to that, he has held the appointments of George R. Minot Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, president of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and director of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. Earlier, he was senior vice president for research at Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories where he co-led the worldwide development team for alendronate (FOSAMAX), Merck’s bisphosphonate for osteoporosis and bone disorders. In addition, he directed drug discovery efforts in molecular biology, bone biology, virology, cancer research, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular research in the United States, Japan, and Italy. He also headed Merck Research’s worldwide University and Industry Relations Department. He is the recipient of the Fuller Albright Award for his work on parathyroid hormone and the Vincent du Vigneaud Award in peptide chemistry and biology, and the Chairman’s Award from Merck. He has served on the board of directors and scientific advisory boards of several biotech companies. He was a scientific founder of ProScript, the company that discovered bortezomib (Velcade), now Takeda Millennium Pharmaceutical’s drug for multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Rosenblatt has served as a founding scientist, scientific advisory board member, or director of more than a dozen biopharmaceutical companies, including ProScript, Millennium, Human Genome Sciences, and Radius Pharmaceuticals. He currently serves on the board of directors of Rubius Therapeutics. He was a member of the board of scientific counselors of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. He has provided congressional testimonies and has served as a consultant to the U.S. President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. He received his undergraduate degree from Columbia University and his M.D. from Harvard. His internship, residency, and endocrinology training were all at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He has been elected to the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, to the fellowship in the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American College of Physicians. He is former president of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research.

Dr. Diane Rowland
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

Diane Rowland, Sc.D. is the executive vice president of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and the executive director of the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. She is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She served as the inaugural chair of the Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program Payment and Access Commission. She holds a bachelor's degree from Wellesley College, M.P.A. from the University of California at Los Angeles, and Sc.D. in health policy and management from the Johns Hopkins University. Her experience includes service on the staff of the Committee on Energy and Commerce in the U.S. House of Representatives, as well as senior health policy positions in the Department of Health and Human Services. Rowland is a founding member of the National Academy for Social Insurance. She is past president and fellow of the Association for Health Services Research (now AcademyHealth). She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Dr. Vinod K. Sahney
Northeastern University

Vinod Sahney, Ph.D. is distinguished university professor of industrial engineering and operations research at Northeastern University. He is also senior fellow at the Institute for Health Care Improvement and an adjunct professor of health policy and management at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He previously served as senior vice president and chief strategy officer at Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Earlier, he served as senior vice president at Henry Ford Health System for 25 years. He has been a management consultant to over 30 health care organizations in the area of strategy, productivity and quality improvement, and served on the boards of many health systems and professional societies. His awards include the Dean Conley Award from the American College of Health Care Executives; the Best Paper Award and Quality Award from Health Care Information and Management Systems Society of the American Hospital Association; a Distinguished Service Award from the Institute of Industrial Engineers; the Founders Award from the Society of Health Systems; the Distinguished Service Award from the University of Wisconsin, Madison; the Gold Award from the Engineering Society of Detroit; and the Gilbreth Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Institute for Industrial Engineering. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine.

Mr. Peter Sands
Harvard University

Peter Sands, M.P.A. is a senior fellow at the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government of the Harvard John F. Kennedy School of Government. Previously he was the group chief executive of Standard Chartered Bank. He joined the board of Standard Chartered as group finance director responsible for finance, strategy, risk and technology and operations. Prior to this, Sands was director and senior partner at McKinsey & Co. Before joining McKinsey, he worked for the United Kingdom’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Sands is the lead non-executive board member of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom. He has served on various boards and commissions, including as a director of the World Economic Forum and co-chairman of Davos, governor of the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Economic and Social Research, member of the International Advisory Board of the Monetary Authority of Singapore, member of the Browne Commission on Higher Education Funding in the United Kingdom, board director of the Institute of International Finance, and chairman of the International Monetary Conference. He graduated from Oxford University and holds an M.P.A. from the Harvard Kennedy School, where he was a Harkness Fellow. He is chair of the International Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future under the auspices of the National Academy of Medicine.

Mr. Alan R. Weil
Health Affairs

Alan Weil, J.D., M.P.P. is editor-in-chief of Health Affairs and vice president for public policy at Project HOPE. Earlier, he was the executive director of the National Academy for State Health Policy. Previously, he directed the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project, one of the largest privately funded social policy research projects ever undertaken in the United States; held a cabinet position as executive director of the Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing; and was assistant general counsel in the Massachusetts Department of Medical Security. He is a member of the board of trustees of the Consumer Health Foundation and a member of the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured and the Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program Payment and Access Commission. He earned his bachelor’s degree from the University of California at Berkeley, a master’s degree from Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. He is a co-editor of two books and has served on the Board on Health Care Services of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Mr. Henri Termeer
Genzyme Corporation

**Henri Termeer, M.B.A., is former chairman, president, and chief executive officer of Genzyme Corporation. Under his leadership for nearly three decades, Genzyme grew from a modest entrepreneurial venture to one of the world’s leading biotechnology companies, and was later acquired by Sanofi. Prior to Genzyme, he held various management positions at Baxter Travenol (now Baxter International). He is a director of Massachusetts General Hospital, and a member of the board of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the board of fellows of Harvard Medical School. He also serves on the board of Partners Health Care, Biotechnology Industry Organization, Project HOPE, Boston Museum of Science, and the following companies: Abiomed Inc., Aveo Pharmaceuticals, Moderna Therapeutics, and ProQR Therapeutics. He was formerly chairman of the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, and is chairman emeritus of the New England Healthcare Institute, that he was instrumental in founding, and board member emeritus of the Biomedical Science Careers Program. He has been inducted into the Academy of Distinguished Entrepreneurs, established by Babson College to recognize the economic and social contributions of business pioneers. He has also received Frost and Sullivan’s Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Lifetime Achievement Award and Ernst & Young’s Master Entrepreneur Award. He studied economics at the Economische Hogeschool (Erasmus University, The Netherlands) and earned an M.B.A from the Darden Business School at the University of Virginia. Termeer is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and an honorary fellow of the U.K. Royal College of Physicians.

Dr. Reed V. Tuckson
Tuckson Health Connections, LLC

Reed Tuckson, M.D., is managing director of Tuckson Health Connections, LLC. Previously, he served as executive vice president and chief of medical affairs for UnitedHealth Group. Earlier, he served as senior vice president for professional standards of the American Medical Association, senior vice president of the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, president of the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, and as the commissioner of public health for the District of Columbia. Tuckson is the immediate past president of the American Telemedicine Association and serves on the board of directors of LifePoint Health, Cell Therapeutics, Inc., and is chairman of the board of directors of ViTel Net, LLC. At the National Institutes of Health, he currently serves on the Clinical Center Research Hospital Board and the National Advisory Council for Complementary and Integrative Health. Additionally, he also serves on the board of the Arnold P. Gold Foundation, advisory board of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, and on the board of trustees of Howard University. Previously, Tuckson was a member of the advisory committee to the director of the National Institutes of Health and served as chairman of the Secretary of Health’s Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health and Society. He has also served on several cabinet level health advisory committees of the U.S. government concerned with health reform, infant mortality, children’s health, violence, and radiation testing. He is a graduate of Howard University, Georgetown University School of Medicine, and the hospital of the University of Pennsylvania’s general internal medicine residency and fellowship programs, where he was also a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar studying at the Wharton School of Business. He is a fellow of American College of Physicians, and a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Committee Membership Roster Comments
There has been a change in committee membership with the appointment of Mr. Henri Termeer and Dr. Reed Tuckson. (note added November 28, 2016)

**Henri Termeer passed away in May 2017.

Statement of Committee Composition
Waiver for Disclosed Conflict of Interest: Michael Rosenblatt

In accordance with Section 15 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the “Academy shall make its best efforts to ensure that no individual appointed to serve on [a] committee has a conflict of interest that is relevant to the functions to be performed, unless such conflict is promptly and publicly disclosed and the Academy determines that the conflict is unavoidable.” A conflict of interest refers to an interest, ordinarily financial, of an individual that could be directly affected by the work of the committee. As specified in the Academy's policy and procedures (http://www.nationalacademies.org/coi/index.html), an objective determination is made for each provisionally appointed committee member whether or not a conflict of interest exists given the facts of the individual's employment and the task being undertaken by the committee. A determination of a conflict of interest for an individual is not an assessment of that individual's actual behavior or character or ability to act objectively despite the conflicting interest.

We have concluded that for this committee to accomplish the tasks for which it was established, its membership must include, among others, at least one person with current experience in the pharmaceutical industry with expertise in the business aspects of drug development and commercialization. To meet the need for this expertise and experience, Dr. Michael Rosenblatt is proposed for appointment to the committee even though we have concluded that he has a conflict of interest because he is the chief medical officer for Flagship Ventures, and is a shareholder of Radius (of which he is a founder) and Merck & Company.

As described in his biographical summary, Dr. Rosenblatt has extensive experience in leading a wide variety of drug development and commercialization activities in the industry. He brings experience and expertise crucial for this study that will need to consider the impact of business factors on the affordability of medicines. We believe that Dr. Rosenblatt can serve effectively as a member of the committee and that the committee can produce an objective report, taking into account the composition of the committee, the work to be performed, and the procedures to be followed in completing the work.

We have not identified another individual who is available to serve, with an equivalent combination of both medical experience and current expertise in drug development and commercialization activities who does not have a similar conflict of interest. Therefore, we have concluded that based on the need for an individual with this type of experience and expertise, this conflict is unavoidable.

Waiver for Disclosed Conflict of Interest: Henri Termeer

In accordance with Section 15 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the “Academy shall make its best efforts to ensure that no individual appointed to serve on [a] committee has a conflict of interest that is relevant to the functions to be performed, unless such conflict is promptly and publicly disclosed and the Academy determines that the conflict is unavoidable.” A conflict of interest refers to an interest, ordinarily financial, of an individual that could be directly affected by the work of the committee. As specified in the Academy's policy and procedures (http://www.nationalacademies.org/coi/index.html), an objective determination is made for each provisionally appointed committee member whether or not a conflict of interest exists given the facts of the individual's employment and the task being undertaken by the committee. A determination of a conflict of interest for an individual is not an assessment of that individual's actual behavior or character or ability to act objectively despite the conflicting interest.

We have concluded that for this committee to accomplish the tasks for which it was established, its membership must include, among others, at least one person with experience in biotechnology R&D. To meet the need for this expertise and experience, Mr. Henri Termeer is proposed for appointment to the committee even though we have concluded that he has a conflict of interest because he is former chairman, president, and chief executive officer of Genzyme Corporation, and also currently serves on the boards of directors for several pharmaceutical and biotech companies.

As described in his biographical summary, Mr. Termeer is a leader in the biopharmaceutical industry. He brings experience and expertise crucial for this study that will need to consider the impact of business factors on the affordability of medicines. We believe that Mr. Termeer can serve effectively as a member of the committee and that the committee can produce an objective report, taking into account the composition of the committee, the work to be performed, and the procedures to be followed in completing the work.

We have not identified another individual who is available to serve, with experience in continuously evolving biotechnology R&D who does not have a similar conflict of interest. Therefore, we have concluded that based on the need for an individual with this type of experience and expertise, this conflict is unavoidable.


Waiver for Disclosed Conflict of Interest: Reed Tuckson

In accordance with Section 15 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the “Academy shall make its best efforts to ensure that no individual appointed to serve on [a] committee has a conflict of interest that is relevant to the functions to be performed, unless such conflict is promptly and publicly disclosed and the Academy determines that the conflict is unavoidable.” A conflict of interest refers to an interest, ordinarily financial, of an individual that could be directly affected by the work of the committee. As specified in the Academy's policy and procedures (http://www.nationalacademies.org/coi/index.html), an objective determination is made for each provisionally appointed committee member whether or not a conflict of interest exists given the facts of the individual's employment and the task being undertaken by the committee. A determination of a conflict of interest for an individual is not an assessment of that individual's actual behavior or character or ability to act objectively despite the conflicting interest.

We have concluded that for this committee to accomplish the tasks for which it was established, its membership must include, among others, at least one person who brings both provider and payer perspectives relating to pharmaceutical drugs. To meet the need for this expertise and experience, Dr. Tuckson is proposed for appointment to the committee even though we have concluded that he has a conflict of interest because he is former executive vice president and chief of medical affairs for UnitedHealth Group.

As described in his biographical summary, Dr. Tuckson is a leader in the health insurance industry, and brings experience and expertise crucial for this study that will need to consider the impact of health insurance on the affordability of medicines. We believe that Dr. Tuckson can serve effectively as a member of the committee and that the committee can produce an objective report, taking into account the composition of the committee, the work to be performed, and the procedures to be followed in completing the work.

We have not identified another individual who is available to serve, with experience in the health insurance industry who does not have a similar conflict of interest. Therefore, we have concluded that based on the need for an individual with this type of experience and expertise, this conflict is unavoidable.